What type of allergy is closely associated with latex allergies

The best way to avoid rubber accelerator allergy is by being aware of products that contain rubber accelerators.

What type of allergy is closely associated with latex allergies

However, it is generally hard to determine which products contain rubber accelerators and which don’t.

Minimize your exposure to every rubber products. Use alternative products made of vinyl, plastic, wood, leather or fabric. Even though some rubber gloves are labelled ‘hypoallergenic’ it is wise to contact the manufacturer to determine if they contain any of the rubber accelerators you are allergic to. Vinyl gloves may be a suitable alternative although some people are allergic to both rubber and vinyl.

What type of allergy is closely associated with latex allergies

Tactylon® gloves are a excellent alternative for most people. Be aware that some non-rubber gloves provide less protection against viruses and certain chemicals than rubber gloves. Discuss the requirements of your gloves with your supplier/manufacturer.

If you are sensitive to rubber accelerators and undergoing dental work or surgery, you should inform your dentist or doctor so they can either use alternative gloves that are free of rubber accelerators, or patch test you in advance with the gloves they plan to use.

Avoid shoes made with rubber accelerators.

What type of allergy is closely associated with latex allergies

Test shoes by wearing them for a few days and watch for a rash (shoe dermatitis) or own shoes patch tested. Any socks or stockings that own been worn with shoes that cause an allergy may become contaminated with rubber. These should not be worn again, as even washing may not remove the contaminant.

Non-rubber condoms (e.g. Durex Avanti) and plastic diaphragms may be suitable contraceptive alternatives. Cover padded arms of upholstered furniture with a towel and avoid walking barefoot on rubber-underlayed carpets.

What products contain rubber accelerators?

Nearly every rubber compounds contain rubber accelerators.

The list under shows the widespread use of rubber products that we may come into contact with daily:

Household/recreational rubber products

  1. rubber kitchen utensils
  2. rubber handled sports equipment, e.g. golf club and raquet tennis racquet handles
  3. elastic bands
  4. pillows and mattresses
  5. rubber gloves
  6. kitchen gloves
  7. anti-slip carpet backing
  8. balloons
  9. garden hoses and gloves
  10. rubber handles (e.g. bicycles, car steering wheel)
  11. rubber swim caps and goggles

Clothing and footwear

  1. elasticised waistbands
  2. rubber insoles of shoes
  3. rubber boots
  4. sport shoes
  5. slippers
  6. elastic in underwear and swimwear
  7. brassiere cups

Cosmetics and healthcare products

  1. rubber latex condoms
  2. diaphragms
  3. rubber make-up sponges
  4. thiuram is in the oral drug Antabuse (used to treat alcoholism)

Work sources

  1. springs
  2. safety goggles
  3. elastic bandages
  4. rubber hoses, seals and cables
  5. rubber stoppers in medical syringes
  6. rubber mats
  7. conveyor belts
  8. commercial and agricultural fungicides and pesticides
  9. earphones
  10. examination and surgical gloves
  11. shock absorbers
  12. electrical cords
  13. protective rubber aprons
  14. gas masks
  15. rubber tires and tubes
  16. stethoscopes
  17. dental dams
  18. lining for fuel tanks
  19. veterinary products, e.g.

    What type of allergy is closely associated with latex allergies

    flea and tick sprays/powders

It is often hard to know which rubber product contains which rubber accelerants. Often the manufacturer of the product will not know either.

What are the reactions to rubber accelerators?

The rash is known as allergic contact dermatitis. It can happen in numerous areas and in any of several patterns.

What type of allergy is closely associated with latex allergies

The following table describes some of the common areas where rubber accelerator allergy may happen, the usual cause, and any distinguishing features of the allergy.

Location Cause Features
  1. Rubber handgrips
  2. Rubber finger guards
  3. Rubber gloves
  4. Oral Antabuse®
  1. May be similar to a photodermatitis
  2. May be worse over pressure areas
  3. Rash caused by rubber gloves often distinguished by sharp cut-off at wrist
  4. Thiuram in oral Antabuse may cause swelling of the hands and feet and water blisters on the hands and fingers
  1. Surgical/examination gloves worn by dentist or doctor
  2. Rubber headphones
  3. Rubber cosmetic applicators, e.g.

    eyeshadow sponge, eyelash curler

  4. Rubber swim or safety goggles
  5. Rubber pillows
  1. Rash occurs mainly on the eyelids where rubber cosmetic sponges own been used
  2. Rash my happen around the mouth or any site of the body where dentist or doctor’s hands touch the skin
Feet / shoe dermatitis
  1. Rubber cements used in joining shoe uppers, the outer leather and linings
  2. Rubber boots
  3. Shoes made with rubber, e.g.

    What type of allergy is closely associated with latex allergies

    sneakers, tennis shoes

  4. Rubber insoles for shoes
  5. Rubber box toes, the most common cause of shoe dermatitis
  1. Recurrenteruptions may happen over numerous years and may be misdiagnosed as psoriasis, eczema or athlete’s foot
  2. Rash generally begins on the base of the large toe and gradually extends to the other toes and onto the feet
  3. Can often become disabling without proper diagnosis and treatment
  1. Condoms
  2. Contraceptive diaphragms
Other parts of the body
  1. Rubber in upholstered furniture
  2. Rubber as a component of fabrics used in underwear such as girdles, bras and baby panties
  3. Rubber in elasticated underwear
  4. Rubber carpet underlay
  1. Rubber baby panties may produce an occlusive, macerating and irritating rash in the diaper area
  2. Rash localised to areas of contact with the garment
  3. Elbow rash has occurred from padded arms of furniture

Am I allergic to rubber accelerators?

Allergy to rubber accelerators is diagnosed by the clinical history and by special allergy tests, patch tests.

These tests may identify which specific rubber accelerators you own an allergy to.

Thiuram stir tests four thiuram chemicals with one test. One of these four will cause about 9 out of 10 cases of allergy to thiuram stir. Similarly, mercapto stir tests for 3 chemicals in the one test.

You can self-test a rubber product for allergy, but this should only be done only after first talking with your dermatologist. Do this only with articles that are designed to stay on the skin, such as underwear or shoes.

Initially, permit the article to be in contact with your skin of your forearm for a short period of time, tell 1 hour. For the next 4 days glance for any reaction.

What type of allergy is closely associated with latex allergies

If no reaction occurs slowly lengthen the period of contact with your skin to a maximum of 48 hours.

Do not test insecticides or other chemical products in this way.

How did I become allergic to rubber accelerators?

Chronic exposure is a likely reason. Surgeons, nurses, dentists, hairdressers and others who wear rubber gloves for work purposes can often develop sensitivity to natural rubber latex and rubber accelerators. In these cases allergy to rubber may come as a consequence of trying to protect your hands from other allergens.

What are rubber accelerators?

Rubber accelerators are chemicals used to speed up the manufacturing process of rubber (vulcanisation).

What type of allergy is closely associated with latex allergies

This process makes untreated natural rubber latex suitable for use in the manufacture of numerous rubber products. There are numerous types of rubber accelerators in use but those listed under cause most cases of rubber contact dermatitis:

Chemical Formula CAS number
  • Benzothiazoles
    1. Dibenzothiazyl disulfide
    2. 2-Mercaptobenzothiazole
    3. N-cyclohexyl-2-benzothiazolesulfenamide
    4. Morpholinylmercaptobenzothiazole
  • C7H5NS2
  • Carba chemicals
  • Dithiocarbamates
    1. Zinc dibutyldithiocarbamate
    2. Zinc diethyldithiocarbamate
    3. Diphenylguanidine
  • C10H20N2S4Zn


  • Thiurams
    1. tetraethylthiuram disulfide
    2. tetramethylthiuram monosulfide
    3. tetramethylthiuram disulfide
    4. dipentamethylenethiuram disulfide
  • C6H12N2S3
    1. Hexamethylenetetramine (methenamine)
    (CH2)6N4 100-97-0

    What are latex allergy symptoms?

    In most cases, latex allergy develops after numerous previous exposures to latex.

    Latex allergy symptoms may include hives, itching, stuffy or runny nose. It can cause asthma symptoms of wheezing, chest tightness and difficulty breathing. Symptoms start within minutes after exposure to latex containing products. The most severe latex allergy can result in anaphylaxis, a serious allergic reaction involving severe breathing difficulty and/or drop in blood pressure (shock).

    Allergic skin problems can happen following direct contact with allergic latex proteins in latex glove products. Symptoms may include immediate itching, redness and swelling of skin that touched the item containing latex. These and other latex allergic reactions are less common now. Numerous hospitals or doctors’ offices own switched to non-latex gloves or low protein latex gloves.

    A second type of skin allergy called “allergic contact dermatitis” may be caused by chemicals used to manufacture rubber gloves.

    This dermatitis is recognized by the eczema and blisters on the back of the hands. It resembles a poison ivy rash, and begins 1 to 3 days after wearing rubber gloves.

    Direct physical contact with latex products is not needed to trigger an allergic reaction. Anaphylaxis and severe asthmatic reactions own been caused by inhaling latex proteins in the air resulting from the powder in the latex glove.

    What triggers the allergic reaction to latex?

    When people with latex allergy come into direct contact with latex, an allergic reaction may follow.

    Common examples include:

    1. A medical or dental procedure conducted by health care workers wearing natural rubber latex gloves
    2. Blowing up a rubber balloon

    What foods are potential problems for people with latex allergy?

    If you own latex allergy you also can own food allergies. The foods most likely to cause this problem include: apple, avocado, banana, carrot, celery, chestnut, kiwi, melons, papaya, raw potato and tomato.

    Allergy to rubber

    Allergic reactions to rubber can be due to allergy to natural latex sap or to one of the numerous chemicals used in the manufacturing of rubber. The types of chemicals used in the manufacturing of rubber include:

    1. vulcanizing agents
    2. accelerators
    3. antidegradants (antioxidants, antiozonants)
    4. activators
    5. retarders
    1. processing aids
    2. reinforcing agents
    3. pigments
    4. fillers
    5. blowing agents

    Allergy can probably happen to any of these chemicals, although rubber accelerators seem to cause the greatest problems.

    Contact allergy to rubber accelerators