What kind of food is good for dogs with allergies
Use an actual dry measuring cup to correctly portion your pet’s food.
A food scoop, coffee mug, drinking cup, or large gulp container are not every equal! Using the incorrect size ‘cup’ can result in overfeeding, which in turn can cause loose stool. In addition, remember that feeding guidelines give the entire quantity to be fed per day, not for each meal
Mix in some pumpkin – Plain pumpkin is a grand source of soluble fiber, and can assist prevent digestive upset.
Add a probiotic – Anytime a dietary change is made, the delicate balance of bacteria in a pet’s digestive system can be altered.
Adding some of these beneficial bacteria can assist the digestive system adjust to the new food and assist prevent gas or other gastro-intestinal upset.
The “Cold Turkey” Switch
In some cases, a slow transition is not possible. If the pet has been ill on the ancient food, or if the ancient food is unavailable, you may own to switch foods without mixing. Another exception to a gradual switch could be switching from a grain based kibble, to a grain free kibble or raw diet.
Grains digest more slowly than an every meat diet, and sometimes when the two are mixed, the diverse rates of digestion can cause digestive upset. If a gradual change isn’t working or isn’t possible, the following is recommended:
1. Quick your pet for a day – Skip one meal so their stomach is empty and ready to digest the new food. Don’t skip more than one day though, especially with cats!
2. Feed less – For just the first day, feed about half their normal quantity. This will hold pets from getting too much new food at once.
3. Add digestive aids – Pumpkin and probiotics are always recommended with a “cold turkey” switch.
Things to Remember
- Give it time – if you notice any issues, go back a step or transition more slowly.
- Not one food is best for every pet – just because a food has grand ingredients, or you love something about it, does not mean your pet will do well on it.
If you follow the steps above, and your pet is not thriving, pick a diverse food.
- Allergies or skin & jacket issues can take up to three months to resolve completely.
If your pet does well with the food transition, give those other issues some time to get better.
- Change in stool – you may notice a change in the appearance of your pet’s stool even after the transition period. This is normal and can be a result of the change in the quantity of fiber and protein in the new diet.
- Consult with your veterinarian – If your pet has loose stool for more than a day or two, shows other signs of gastro-intestinal distress, or just isn’t acting love their normal self, never hesitate to get them checked out by their veterinarian.
Most allergies are contact allergies.
There are definitely a percentage of dogs that own food allergies also.
So today, I’m going to talk to you a little bit about allergies, and there’s so numerous misconceptions and misinformation out there, and people who desire to sell you every kinds of things that are going to cure the allergies, but I’m going to helpful of give you just a basic picture of what’s significant to know. And most importantly, remember, every dog is diverse. Every situation is diverse, and you really need the assist and guidance of a veterinary to select the best products.
Most people come to us because their dog is, tell, itching for whatever reason.
Obviously, the first thing we’re going to law out would be parasites.
There are some kinds of mites that can cause itching, certainly fleas and even ticks can cause itching, so we’re going to make certain that those things are well covered first. Then the next thing we’ll start to talk about would be things love environmental concerns.
But really, with allergies, the way that they work with most dogs is that the vast majority are contact allergies. Yes, love some love that, and a dog is going to be exposed by stepping or rolling or laying in the grass, or whatever, and they’re going to be exposed to allergens.
When we test for allergies, we’re testing for about 75 diverse things, so no one can glance at your dog and tell, «Oh, it’s grass.» There’s really just no way of knowing that, but it’s certainly a extremely excellent possibility that it could be grass or molds that are in the grass when the grasses are wet.
But what happens is these allergens are exposed to the dog’s skin, and then they’re absorbed through the skin. Dogs that own allergies, a lot of them own a barrier problem; meaning if you ponder about the skin as being love saran wrap, and dogs that own allergies own more holes in their saran wrap than other dogs.
So then these allergens are capable to penetrate through the skin, and in addition, they own some overreaction to whatever it is they’re being exposed to. If it’s grass, the grass allergens are getting into the skin and into the second layer of the skin a little bit easier, and then the body may be overreacting, causing histamine release, and other things that are really itchy for the dog, and then that’s going to cause the dog to itch.
Once the dog starts licking and chewing and scratching and biting, we get secondary problems love yeast and bacteria infections, which may require us to do some cytologies. Basically, we’re looking at the cells of the skin to see if there’s yeast or bacteria, because they’re treated extremely differently.
We own so numerous amazing drugs now to assist fight with allergies. We own two new medications; one is a pill that is a non-steroidal pill that really helps to block the reaction of itch, and another one is an injectable drug that also helps with the overresponse that an allergic dog displays.
These drugs are amazing and such a lifesaver for a dog’s quality of life, but they do require that we make certain that infections are cleared up, and that we’ve done a beautiful thorough workup before doing any of these medications. So bottom line is this: Most allergies are contact allergies. There are definitely a percentage of dogs that own food allergies also.
Some of them can own a combination of every of the above, but I ponder if you went into a pet store, you’d discover that fairly often telling you, you own to purchase this certain helpful of food, and really rarely is that what should happen.
You don’t really desire to get your health information from a 16 year ancient pet store employee; not that there’s anything incorrect with them, but they don’t generally own the eight years of school that assist us to make a better plan for your puppy or your dog in choosing the best medications.
So, if your dog is having itching, scratching problem, most importantly, just get to the vet. Own them start working your dog up and discover the best way to get your dog’s skin under control.
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Allergies affect numerous diverse dog breeds, but collies are one of the breeds that are commonly affectedRashes are common in dogs suffering from food-related allergic reactions
This is a list of allergies, which includes the allergen, potential reactions, and a brief description of the cause where applicable.
Allergies affect numerous diverse dog breeds, but collies are one of the breeds that are commonly affectedRashes are common in dogs suffering from food-related allergic reactions
This is a list of allergies, which includes the allergen, potential reactions, and a brief description of the cause where applicable.
Nutrients included in hypoallergenic diets
Carbohydrates are large macronutrients which supply energy to the organism consuming them, and include nutrients such as sugars, oligosaccharides, and starches. Dogs may become sensitive or allergic to certain carbohydrate sources in their diet, and novel carbohydrates may be used in an attempt to avoid this reaction. Novel carbohydrates are carbohydrates which the dog they are being fed to has never consumed before.
Some examples of novel carbohydrate ingredients include brown rice and sweet potato, as well as brewer’s rice.
Vitamin E is an antioxidant which has significant functions in immune health. These compounds scavenge for free radicals, protecting cell membranes from damage caused by lipid oxidation. This is beneficial to own in hypoallergenic dog food diets to assist maintain cell integrity in case damage does happen due to a reaction.
Vitamin E is commonly found just as a vitamin supplement in diets, but it is also present in other food ingredients such as soybean oil, corn oil, olive oil, and sunflower oil.
Vitamin A is involved in cell growth and division, as well as hair growth and skin maintenance. Since some of the key symptoms of food allergies include damage to the skin, it is significant to include Vitamin A in hypoallergenic diets to assist clear up the damage done by any previous allergic reactions a dog may own had.
Ingredients in dog food that function as a source of vitamin A are fish oils such as cod oil.
Omega-3 fatty acids
Essential n-3 fatty acids in dog food assist to treat the inflammation associated with allergic reactions. These essential fatty acids assist to manage inflammatory responses by changing the levels of pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory eicosanoids produced during a reaction. They also assist to maintain healthy skin and to maintain cell structure. These n-3 fatty acids are generally incorporated into dog food diets by using ingredients love fish oil.
Zinc supplementation in hypoallergenic dog foods aids in the maintenance of skin and jacket health. Zinc also plays a role in mitigating inflammatory and immune reactions. Zinc can be found supplemented as a mineral in the diet, but it can also be added in the diet through lamb meat, as this ingredient is known to be high in zinc.
Negative digestive effects that accompany dietary food allergies can be reduced by including soluble and insoluble fibers.
Insoluble fibers own a relatively low fermentability, which assist to decrease the negative digestive effects such as gas and soft stools. When soluble fibers are mixed with water they form a gel-like substance which helps to reduce gastric emptying in order to increase the time available for nutrients to be absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract. Compounds called fructooligosaccharides (FOS) are found in various soluble fibers, which aid in promoting intestinal health. FOS act as a prebiotic to increase the growth of beneficial bacteria and hinder the growth of pathogenic bacteria in the animal’s digestive tract.
Common ingredients in dog food that provide such fibers include beet pulp, cellulose and chicory root.
Novel protein diets
Beef, soy, chicken, turkey and egg products are commonly used ingredients in commercial dog foods as a source of protein. These protein sources own been proven to elicit an allergic response in dogs with food allergies. Novel sources of protein can be used in put of these allergenic ingredients to meet the feeding requirements for a dog, while minimizing or eliminating the chances of an allergic response.
For a protein to be considered novel, it must be one that the dog has not consumed before. Novel protein sources include venison, veal, kangaroo and fish, such as salmon.
Hydrolyzed protein diets
One of the possible causes of food allergies in dogs is a reaction of the dog’s immune system to the proteins in a diet. One method that may be used to attempt and combat this immunologic response in dogs with food allergies is the use of hydrolyzed proteins in the diet. Whole proteins are composed of single amino acids organized into a chain, which then interact in order to fold the protein into its final three-dimensional structure. Hydrolyzed proteins are whole proteins that own been broken below into smaller polypeptides through a process called protein hydrolysis.
One method of protein hydrolysis involves the use of enzymes specific to proteins called proteases. Proteases act by cleaving or cutting whole proteins at specific amino acids within their structure in order to form multiple little polypeptides from a single whole protein. Diverse proteases are specific to diverse amino acids, and as such multiple proteases may be used in order to cut a protein at several diverse locations. The theory behind the use of these little peptides in food as an alternative to whole proteins is that their little size will prevent them from stimulating the immune system of the gut, thereby reducing and/or preventing an allergic reaction. When hydrolyzed proteins are used in hypoallergenic canine diets it is with the hopes of avoiding an immunologic reaction both in dogs that own consumed the whole protein previously and in dogs whose intestinal tract has never seen the whole protein before but has been known to react to other protein types.
Limited ingredient diets
Introducing a food that consists of limited ingredients is a common method of reducing the occurrence of food related allergic reactions in dogs.
Limited ingredient diets are made up of fewer ingredients, typically limiting the formula to one protein, carbohydrate, and/or fat. This is an attempt to improve digestion and reduce the likelihood of a reaction ensuing in dogs with sensitivities to common ingredients found in most commercial dog foods. These diets will avoid protein and carbohydrate sources, such as beef, dairy, poultry, barley, and wheat. There are numerous feed ingredients that own been observed to predispose animals to diet related reactions.
This is due to their frequent exposure to such ingredients, which makes it likely for them to adopt sensitivities and allergies to commercial dog foods. Studies own shown that it is possible for dogs to own symptoms caused by more than one ingredient in a given diet, this makes the use of a limited ingredient diet relevant as a result of the inclusion of single protein and carbohydrate sources. If symptoms of food allergies persist after the introduction of this type of diet, it can also be helpful for determining the new allergen that is causing the adverse reaction due to the limited number of ingredients. Although these diets consist of fewer dietary ingredients, they still provide every the necessary nutrients to meet the animal’s requirements.
Dog Allergy Symptoms
While not generally life threatening, allergies in dogs do cause discomfort. Most symptoms are associated with dermatologic problems but some can also lead to chronic respiratory issues in some dogs if untreated for endless periods of time. Sometimes an owner will bring their dog to a veterinary appointment, suspecting a serious medical condition and finish up finding out that their canine companion has an allergy.
Here are some allergy symptoms commonly found in dogs:
- Frequent sneezing and/or wheezing
- Periodic chewing on the same or diverse body parts or areas
- Compulsive scratching
- Excessive licking
- Regularly rubbing body or body parts against the ground, walls, furniture, etc.
- Skin irritation/fur loss
Most allergies develop in the second year of life for dogs.
In the first year, the dog will be exposed to numerous types of allergens primarily through contact with the skin. A smaller number of allergies may be caused by food (usually the protein source) and inhalant (things they breathe in that are in the air). In the second year of life, the dog’s immune system will overreact to the antigen(s) causing release of immune cells which release inflammatory substances ( such as histamine) which lead to symptoms of itching. Rarely is a dog allergic to just one thing. Most allergic dogs are born with a less than optimal skin barrier which allows for antigens to enter the skin more easily.
Dogs that suffer from allergies own abnormal skin and a less than optimal immune response which allows for secondary infections to happen. Typically, dogs do not suffer from a single allergy, but instead, dogs with sensitivities to allergens own a host of issues. You must understand that dog allergies are due to a complicated set of issues that tends to change as the dog’s environment changes.
Because these symptoms can own several possible causes, we recommend making a veterinary appointment immediately if you notice your dog exhibiting any of the above symptoms. Early diagnosis and treatment of dog allergies not only increases the likelihood of your dog’s treatment being successful, but can also be less expensive than delaying treatment.
The longer you wait, the more your dog suffers and more severe the secondary infections can become.
Main article: Allergy § Other environmental factors
|Balsam of Peru||Redness, swelling, itching, allergiccontact dermatitis reactions, stomatitis (inflammation and soreness of the mouth or tongue), cheilitis (inflammation, rash, or painful erosion of the lips, oropharyngealmucosa, or angles of their mouth), pruritus, hand eczema, generalized or resistant plantardermatitis, rhinitis, conjunctivitis, and blisters.||A number of national and international surveys own identified Balsam of Peru as being in the «top five» allergens most commonly causing patch test reactions in people referred to dermatology clinics.|
|Pollen||Sneezing, body ache, headache (in rare cases, extremely painful cluster headaches may happen due to allergic sinusitis; these may leave a temporary time period of 1 and a half to 2 days with eye sensitivity), allergic conjunctivitis (includes watery, red, swelled, itchy, and irritating eyes), runny nose, irritation of the nose, nasal congestion, minor fatigue, chest pain and discomfort, coughing, sore throat, facial discomfort (feeling of stuffed face) due to allergic sinusitis, possible asthma attack, wheezing|
|Cat||Sneezing, itchy swollen eyes, rash, congestion, wheezing|
|Dog||Rash, sneezing, congestion, wheezing, vomiting from coughing, Sometimes itchy welts.||Caused by dander, saliva or urine of dogs, or by dust, pollen or other allergens that own been carried on the fur. Allergy to dogs is present in as much as 10 percent of the population.|
|Insect sting||Hives, wheezing, possible anaphylaxis||Possible from bee or wasp stings, or bites from mosquitoes or flies love Leptoconops torrens.|
|Mold||Sneeze, coughing, itchy, discharge from the nose, respiratory irritation, congested feeling, joint aches, headaches, fatigue|
|Perfume||Itchy eyes, runny nose, sore throat, headaches, muscle/joint pain, asthma attack, wheezing, chest pain, blisters|
|Cosmetics||Contact dermatitis, irritant contact dermatitis, inflammation, redness, conjunctivitis ,sneezing|
|Semen||Burning, pain and swelling, possibly for days, swelling or blisters, vaginal redness, fever, runny nose, extreme fatigue||In a case study in Switzerland, a lady who was allergic to Balsam of Peru was allergic to her boyfriend’s semen following intercourse, after he drank large amounts of Coca-Cola.|
|Latex||Contact dermatitis, hypersensitivity|
|Water (see note)||Epidermal itching||Strictly aquagenic pruritus or aquagenic urticaria, but freezing urticaria may also be described as a «water allergy,» in which water may cause hives and anaphylaxis|
|House dust mite||Asthma||Home allergen reduction may be recommended|
|Nickel (nickel sulfate hexahydrate)||Allergic contact dermatitis, dyshidrotic eczema|
|Gold (gold sodium thiosulfate)||Allergic contact dermatitis|
|Chromium||Allergic contact dermatitis|
|Cobalt chloride||Allergic contact dermatitis|
|Formaldehyde||Allergic contact dermatitis|
|Photographic developers||Allergic contact dermatitis|
|Fungicide||Allergic contact dermatitis, fever, anaphylaxis|
Main article: Drug allergy
|Balsam of Peru||Redness, swelling, itching, allergiccontact dermatitis reactions, stomatitis (inflammation and soreness of the mouth or tongue), cheilitis (inflammation, rash, or painful erosion of the lips, oropharyngealmucosa, or angles of their mouth), pruritus, hand eczema, generalized or resistant plantardermatitis, rhinitis, conjunctivitis, and blisters.||Present in numerous drugs, such as hemorrhoid suppositories and ointment (e.g. Anusol), cough medicine/suppressant and lozenges, diaper rash ointments, oral and lip ointments, tincture of benzoin, wound spray (it has been reported to inhibit Mycobacterium tuberculosis as well as the common ulcer-causing bacteria H.
pylori in test-tube studies), calamine lotion, surgical dressings, dental cement, eugenol used by dentists, some periodontal impression materials, and in the treatment of dry socket in dentistry.
|Tetracycline||Many, including: severe headache, dizziness, blurred vision, fever, chills, body aches, flu symptoms, severe blistering, peeling, dark colored urine|
|Dilantin||Many, including: swollen glands, simple bruising or bleeding, fever, sore throat|
|Tegretol (carbamazepine)||Shortness of breath, wheezing or difficulty breathing, swelling of the face, lips, tongue etc., hives|
|Penicillin||Diarrhea, hypersensitivity, nausea, rash, neurotoxicity, urticaria|
|Cephalosporins||Maculopapular or morbilliform skin eruption, and less commonly urticaria, eosinophilia, serum-sickness–like reactions, and anaphylaxis.|
|Sulfonamides||Urinary tract disorders, haemopoietic disorders, porphyria and hypersensitivity reactions, Stevens–Johnson syndrometoxic epidermal necrolysis|
|Non-steroidal anti-inflammatories (cromolyn sodium, nedocromil sodium, etc.)||Many, including: swollen eyes, lips, or tongue, difficulty swallowing, shortness of breath, rapid heart rate|
|Intravenous contrast dye||Anaphylactoid reactions and contrast-induced nephropathy|
|Local anesthetics||Urticaria and rash, dyspnea, wheezing, flushing, cyanosis, tachycardia|
Main article: Food allergy
|Balsam of Peru||Redness, swelling, itching, allergiccontact dermatitis reactions, stomatitis (inflammation and soreness of the mouth or tongue), cheilitis (inflammation, rash, or painful erosion of the lips, oropharyngealmucosa, or angles of their mouth), pruritus, hand eczema, generalized or resistant plantardermatitis, rhinitis, conjunctivitis, and blisters.||Present in numerous foods, such as coffee, flavored tea, wine, beer, gin, liqueurs, apéritifs (e.g. vermouth, bitters), soft drinks including cola, juice, citrus, citrus fruit peel, marmalade, tomatoes and tomato-containing products, Mexican and Italian foods with red sauces, ketchup, spices (e.g. cloves, Jamaica pepper (allspice), cinnamon, nutmeg, paprika, curry, anise, and ginger), chili sauce, barbecue sauce, chutney, pickles, pickled vegetables, chocolate, vanilla, baked goods and pastries, pudding, ice cream, chewing gum, and candy.|
|Egg||Anaphylaxis, swelling, sometimes flatulence and vomiting||An allergic individual may not own any reaction to consuming food only prepared with yolk and not glair, or vice versa.|
|Fish||Respiratory reactions, Anaphylaxis, oral allergy syndrome, sometimes vomiting||One of three allergies to seafood, not to be conflated with allergies to crustaceans and mollusks. Fish allergy sufferers own a 50% likelihood of being cross reactive with another fish species, but some individuals are only allergic to one species, such as; tilapia, salmon,  or cod. A proper diagnosis is considered complicated due to these cross reactivity between fish species and other seafood allergies.
 Hazard extends to exposure to cooking vapors or handling.
|Fruit||Mild itching, rash, generalized urticaria, oral allergy syndrome, abdominal pain, vomiting, anaphylaxis||Mango, strawberries, banana, avocado, and kiwi are common problems. Severe allergies to tomatoes own also been reported. |
|Garlic||Dermatitis, asymmetrical pattern of fissure, thickening/shedding of the outer skin layers,anaphylaxis|
|Hot peppers||Skin rash, hives, throat tightness, tongue swelling, possible vomiting|
|Oats||Dermatitis, respiratory problems, anaphylaxis|
|Maize||Hives, pallor, confusion, dizziness, stomach pain, swelling, vomiting, indigestion, diarrhea, cough, tightness in throat, wheezing, shortness of breath, anaphylaxis||Often a hard allergy to manage due to the various food products which contain various forms of corn.|
|Milk||Skin rash, hives, vomiting, diarrhea, constipation, stomach pain, flatulence, nasal congestion, dermatitis, blisters, anaphylaxis||Not to be confused with lactose intolerance.|
|Peanut||Anaphylaxis and swelling, sometimes vomiting||Includes some cold-pressed peanut oils. Distinct from tree nut allergy, as peanuts are legumes.
|Poultry Meat||Hives, swelling of, or under the dermis, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, severe oral allergy syndrome, shortness of breath, rarely anaphylactic shock||Very rare allergies to chicken, turkey, squab, and sometimes more mildly to other avian meats. Not to be confused with secondary reactions of bird-egg syndrome. The genuine allergy has no causal relationship with egg allergy, nor is there any shut association with red meat allergy.
Prevalence still unknown as of 2016.
|Red Meat||Hives, swelling, dermatitis, stomach pain, nausea, vomiting, dizziness, fainting, shortness of breath,, rarely anaphylaxis||Allergies to the sugar carbohydrate found in beef, venison, lamb, and pork called alpha-gal. It is brought on by tick bites. Allergic reaction to pork is an exception, as it may also be caused by pork-cat syndrome instead of alpha-gal allergy.|
|Rice||Sneezing, runny nose, itching, stomachache, eczema.||People with a rice allergy can be affected by eating rice or breathing in rice steam.|
|Sesame||Possible respiratory, skin, and gastrointestinal reactions which can trigger serious systemic anaphylactic responses.||By law, foods containing sesame must be labeled so in European Union, Canada, Australia, and New Zealand.|
|Shellfish||Respiratory symptoms, Anaphylaxis, oral allergy syndrome, gastrointestinal symptoms, rhinitis, conjunctivitis||Shellfish allergies are highly cross reactive, but its prevalence is generally higher than that of fish allergy.
As of 2018 six allergens own been identified to prawn alone; along with crab it‘s the major culprit of seafood anaphylaxis. In reference to it as one of the “Big 8”  or “major 14” allergens it is sometimes specified as a “crustacean shellfish” allergy, or more simply, a “crustacean allergy”. Sometimes it is conflated with an allergy to molluscan shellfish but finish tolerance to one but not the other isn’t unusual.
Most generally, a mono-sensitive individual will experience a crustacean allergy alone with tolerance to mollusks, rather than vice versa.
|Soy||Anaphylaxis, sometimes vomiting|
|Sulfites||Hives, rash, redness of skin, headache (particular frontal), burning behind eyes, breathing difficulties (anaphylaxis)||Used as a preserving agent in numerous diverse foods, such as raisins, dried peaches, various other dried fruit, canned or frozen fruits and vegetables, wines, vinegars and processed meats.|
|Tartrazine||Skin irritation, hives, rash||Synthetic yellow food coloring, also used for bright green coloring|
|Tree nut||Anaphylaxis, swelling, rash, hives, sometimes vomiting||Hazard extends to exposure to cooking vapors, or handling. Distinct from peanut allergy, as peanuts are legumes.|
|Wheat||Eczema (atopic dermatitis), Hives, asthma, hay fever, angioedema, abdominal cramps, Celiac disease, diarrhea, temporary (3 or 4 day) mental incompetence, anemia, nausea, and vomiting||Not to be confused with Celiac Disease or NCGS (Non Celiac Gluten Sensitivity).
While wheat allergies are «true» allergies, Celiac Disease is an autoimmune disease.
Many substances can cause an allergic reaction when in contact with the human integumentary system.
Allergen responses and symptoms
Allergens can elicit both immunologic and non-immunologic responses. Immunologic reactions, also known as Type 1 reactions, are caused by the binding of ingested molecules to specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibodies. Once binding occurs, mast cell degranulation follows, releasing granules that initiate the symptoms of an allergic reaction in the body. These immunological reactions are almost instantaneous, and it is widely accepted that the molecules which bind to IgE antibodies are generally intact proteins. Non-immunologic, or non-IgE mediated reactions are less understood, but are known to present similar symptoms as immunologic reactions. These reactions can be classified under food sensitivities, and it is argued that they are not truly allergenic. Whether a reaction is truly allergenic in nature or a sensitivity, it is significant that hypoallergenic dog foods provide the ingredients necessary to hold canines from experiencing discomfort.
The signs of a canine food allergy or sensitivity vary greatly, but the most common to glance for include rashes, swelling, itchy or tender skin, and gastrointestinal upsets. These signs are extremely similar to, but should not be confused with canine atopic dermatitis, which is not caused by food allergies.