What is whey milk allergy

The Nature of Biological Systems as Revealed by Thermal Methods is a guide for experiments using thermal methods. The Editor has used his numerous years of experience to create a unique resource that will enable others with a less mathematical background, to realize the beauty and power of this tool and to acquire a better understanding of biological problems.Biological calorimetry (and of course thermal analysis) is of increasing interest and is not covered thoroughly in other resources.

The methods presented are macroscopic, for the rather inhomogeneous material (micromethods are often not possible or not pertinent). This book will assist beginners in the field of thermal analysis or calorimetry understand the principles of thermodynamics being applied to biological systems. Biological systems are highly organized and extremely complicated. The water and the diverse types of feeble interactions among the macromolecules make the interpretation of thermal events extremely hard. This book includes examples how to handle such problems.The Nature of Biological Systems as Revealed by Thermal Methods is unique in that it: has a wide spectrum, from molecules and biochemistry, tissues, and food, to whole organisms; combines practical problems (food processing, quality control, thermal denaturation of proteins, plants and little insects, etc.) with concrete solutions and interpretation; provides practical strategies and tools without «dry physics and mathematics»; initiates the application of thermal methods in new fields (e.g.

medicine); forces the reader to go into more detail of thermodynamics and thermal techniques; simplifies communication between biologists, medical doctors and experts of thermal analysis.Thebook is an invaluable resource for anyone interested in thermodynamics, including practising professionals applying thermal methods to biological problems; researchers and graduate students beginning work using thermal methods; and specialists of thermal analysis starting work on biological problems. In addition, this book will be a useful resource for libraries and institutes as the only book covering quantitative thermal analysis of biological systems.

Allergy to goat and sheep milk without allergy to cows’ milk


Cows’ milk allergy occurs in 2% to 6% of the baby population, being the most frequent cause of food allergy.

Numerous of these infants cannot tolerate goats’ or sheeps’ milk either (Bellioni-Businjco et al, 1999). Conversely, the goat’s or sheep’s milk allergies that are not associated with allergic cross-reactivity to cow’s milk are rare.

Until 2000 a dozen observations of caprine and ovine milk without allergy to bovine milk own been described (Wüthrich and Johansson,1995; Calvani and Allessandri, 1998; Umpiérrez et al, 1999). Since 2000 more frequent observations own been reported (Orlando and Breton-Bouveyron, 2000; Lamblin et al, 2001; Munoz-Martin et al, 2004; Restany, 2004; Martins, 2005; Attou et al, 2005; Tavarez et al, 2007; Boissieu et Dupont, 2008) and significative series own been described: 18 observations by Paty et al (2003), 31 by Bidat et al (2003) and 28 by Ah-Leung et al (2006).

Recently Vitte and Bongrand (2008) reported a fatal ewe’s milk-induced anaphylaxis on a 8 years ancient boy.

Generally chidren had severe allergic reactions, including anaphylaxis, a few minutes after consumption of goats’ or sheeps’ milk products but tolerated cows’ milk products. Clinical observations, skin prick testing and immunoglobulin IgE-binding studies confirmed the diagnosis of goat’s or sheeps’ milk allergy without associated cows’ milk allergy.

The characteristics of goat’s or sheep’s milk allergy differ from those of cow’s milk allergy because it affects older children and appears later (around 6 years).

However, Umpiérrez et al (1999) reported on a two years ancient girl who experienced allergic reactions after eating goat cheese and after touching goat and sheep cheese, but not after consuming cow milk. In the series of Bidat (2003) 19% of the children regularly consumed goats’ milk while previously allergic to cows’ milk.

The major allergenic proteins in cow’s milk are ß-lactoglobulin, a-lactalbumin, serum albumin and caseins (Räsänen et al, 1992). However, it has been suggested that caseins may be the main allergen both in children (Kohno et al, 1994) and adults (Stöger et al, 1993).

In their series of infants with goat’s or sheep’s milk allergy, Ah-Leung et al (2006) demonstrated by enzyme allergosorbent tests that the casein fractions and not the whey proteins were involved. Cow’s milk caseins were not at every or poorly recognized by the patient’s IgE, while aS1-, aS2- and ß-caseins from goat’s or sheep’s milk were recognized with high specificity and affinity. Unlike what is observed in cow’s milk allergy, k-casein was not recognized by the IgE antibodies. A similar predominant role of caseins has been observed by Umpiérrez et al (1999). However, Tavares et al (2007) reported that a non-casein 14 kDa protein (probably a-lactalbunin) was involved for a 27 years ancient female patient exhibiting goats’ milk allergy not associated to cows’ milk allergy.

Due to severity of the anaphylactic reaction of patients with allergy to caprine and ovine milk, Boissieu and Dupont (2008) recommend to avoid eating cheese made from caprine or ovine milk (Feta, Roquefort, Ossau Iraty, Etorky etc.) and cheese not stored at home (restaurant, buffet, friends etc.).

Care must be taken to present cheese made from bovine milk and cheese made from caprine or ovine cheese in separate plates to avoid the frequently observed cross-contaminations. Moreover, allergic patients must be circunspect with numerous foods which can contain goat’s or sheep’s dairy proteins such as pizza, toasted cheese, Moussaka etc.

In this new context, the agroalimentary industry must now implement analytical methods to detect goat’s or sheep’s milk in bovine dairy products and in agro-alimentary products with added milk proteins. Most of the published analytical methods own been developed for the detection of bovine milk in the more expensive caprine or ovine milks.

The detection limits are around 1% contamination since a lower percentage is not of economical interest. Now, the detection of potentially allergenic goat’s milk or sheep’s milk in cow’s milk must be more sensitive, below to 10-100 ppm, in order to guarantee the allergenic safety of the cow milk dairy products.


References

Ah-Leung S, Bernard H, Bidat E et al, 2006. Allergy to goat and sheep milk without allergy to cow’s milk. Allergy 61: 1358–65

Attou D, Caherec A, Bensakhria S et al, 2005. Allergie aux laits de chèvre et de brebis sans allergie associée au lait de vache. Rev Fr Allergol Immunol Clin 5: 601–607

Bellioni-Businco B, Paganelli R, Lucenti P, Giampietro PG, Perborn H, Businco L, 1999.

Allergenicity of goat’s milk in children with cow’s milk allergy. J Allergy Clin Immunol, 103: 1191-1194

Bidat E, Rancé F, Baranes T et al, 2003. L’allergie au lait de chèvre ou de brebis chez l’enfant, sans allergie associée au lait de vache. Rev Fr Allergol 43: 273-277

Boissieu D, Dupont C, 2008. Allergy to goat and sheep milk without allergy to cow’s milk. Arch Pediatr 15: 349-351

Calvani Jr M, Alessandri C, 1998. Anaphylaxis to sheep’s milk cheese in a kid unaffected by cow’s milk protein allergy.

What is whey milk allergy

Eur J Pediatr 157: 17–19

Kohno Y, Honna K, Saito K et al, 1994. Preferential recognition of primary protein structures of casein by IgG and IgE antibodies of patients with milk allergy. Ann Allergy 7: 419-422

Lamblin C, Bourrier T, Orlando JP et al, 2001. Allergie aux laits de chêvre et de brebis sans allergie associée au lait de vache. Rev Fr Allergol Immunol Clin 41: 165–168

Martins P, Borrego LM, Pires G, Pinto PL, Afonso AR, Rosado-Pinto J, 2005. Sheep and goat’s milk allergy—a case study. Allergy 60: 129-130

Muñoz-Martín T, de la Hoz Caballer B, Marañón Lizana F, González Mendiola R, Prieto Montaño P, Sánchez Cano M, 2004.

Selective allergy to sheep’s and goat’s milk proteins. Allergol Immunopathol 32: 39-42

Orlando JP, Breton-Bouveyron A, 2000. Anaphylactoid reaction to goat’s milk. Allerg Immunol 32: 231-232

Paty E, Chedevergne F, Scheinmann P et al, 2003. Allergie au lait de chèvre et de brebis sans allergie associée au lait de vache. Rev Fr Allergol 43: 455-462

Räsänen L, Lehto M, Reumala T, 1992. Diagnostic worth of skin and laboratory tests in cow’s milk allergy/intolerance. Clin Exp Allergy 22: 385-390

Stöger P, Wüthrich B, 1993. Type I allergy to cow milk proteins in adults. A retrospective study of 34 adult milk- and cheese-allergic patients. Int Arch Allergy Immunol 102: 399-407

Restani P, 2004 Goat milk allergenicity.

J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 39: 323-324

Tavares B, Pereira C, Rodrigues F, Loureiro G, Chieira C, 2007. Goat’s milk allergy. Allergol Immunopathol 35: 113-116

Umpiérrez A, Quirce S, Marañón F, Cuesta J, García-Villamuza Y, Lahoz C, Sastre J, 1999. Allergy to goat and sheep cheese with excellent tolerance to cow cheese. Clin Exp Allergy 29: 1064-1068

Vitte J, Bongrand P, 2008. Fatal ewe’s milk-induced anaphylaxis: laboratory work-up. Arch Pédiatr 15: 1300-1303

Wüthrich B, Johansson SG, 1995. Allergy to cheese produced from sheep’s and goat’s milk but not to cheese produced from cow’s milk. J Allergy Clin Immunol 96: 270–273

The economic importance of dairy powders and concentrated products to dairy-producing countries is extremely significant, and there is a large demand for them in countries where milk production is low or non-existent.

In these markets, dairy products are made locally to meet the demand of consumers from recombined powders, anhydrous milk fat and concentrated dairy ingredients (evaporated and sweetened condensed milk).

This volume is the latest book in the Technical Series of The Society of Dairy Technology (SDT). Numerous scientific data own been available in journals and books in recent years, and the primary purpose of this text is to detail in one publication the manufacturing methods, scientific aspects, and properties of milk powders (full-fat, skimmed and high protein powders made from milk retentates), whey powders (WP) including WP concentrates, lactose, caseinates, sweetened condensed milk, evaporated milk and baby baby feed.

The book also covers the international standards relating to these products for trading purposes, as well as the hazards, such as explosion and fire, that may happen during the manufacture of dairy powders. The authors, who are every specialists in these products, own been chosen from around the world. The book will be of interest to dairy scientists, students, researchers and dairy operatives around the world.

For information regarding the SDT, please contact Maurice Walton, Executive Director, Society of Dairy Technology, P.O. Box 12, Appleby in Westmorland, CA16 6YJ, UK. email: [email protected]

Also available from Wiley-Blackwell
Milk Processing and Quality Management
Edited by A.Y.

Tamime
ISBN 978 1 4051 4530 5

Cleaning-in-Place
Edited by A.Y. Tamime
ISBN 978 1 4051 5503 8

Advanced Dairy Science and Technology
Edited by T. Britz and R. Robinson
ISBN 978 1 4051 3618 1

International Journal of Dairy Technology
Published quarterly
Print ISSN: 1364 727X
Online ISSN: 1471 0307

Milk-based hydrolysates for baby nutrition
Hydrolysates are produced by enzymatic hydrolysis of milk proteins, generating a product profile containing various peptide sizes and intact protein depending on whether a filtration process is applied.

Hydrolysed proteins are applied into formulas targeting the allergy management area and the comfort formula category.

There are two hydrolysate categories for use in baby nutrition:

  1. Extensive,filteredhydrolysates; almost every epitopes are destroyed.

    Ideal for allergic infants

  2. Partial,non-filteredhydrolysates; minimal number of epitopes are still present. Ideal for allergy prevention and comfort products

Formulas containing hydrolysed proteins are crucial for the nutrition of infants who are allergic to cow’s milk proteins or identified as being in the allergy risk group, as allergy-causing areas (epitopes) are destroyed or reduced to a minimum in the hydrolysis process.

Animal studies own shown that partial hydrolysates can induce oral tolerance to intact proteins. Oral tolerance is the athletic non-response of the immune system to an allergen istered orally. If oral tolerance fails, food allergy occurs, which means oral tolerance is a critical process in the first few months of life.

Ingestion of a protein hydrolysate, as opposed to the intact protein or free amino acids, is thought to facilitate protein digestion and absorption and increase plasma amino acid availability.

Arla Foods Ingredients has a wide range of hydrolysed casein and whey proteins which can be used for allergy treatment and prevention as well as comfort.

These products are designed and tested for significant quality descriptors such as antigenicity, molecular weight distribution and degree of hydrolysis to ensure a consistent quality to this sensitive consumer group.

Leading image: Artistic interpretation of a protein hydrolysate.

Arla Foods Ingredients supports the WHO recommendation for exclusive breastfeeding for the first six months of an infant’s life and continued breastfeeding up to the age of two or beyond in combination with nutritionally appropriate complementary foods.

2016
Volume 19
Issue 3

Topic: The Nature of Biological Systems as Revealed by Thermal Methods is a guide for experiments using thermal methods.

The Editor has used his numerous years of experience to create a unique resource that will enable others with a less mathematical background, to realize the beauty and power of this tool and to acquire a better understanding of biological problems.Biological calorimetry (and of course thermal analysis) is of increasing interest and is not covered thoroughly in other resources. The methods presented are macroscopic, for the rather inhomogeneous material (micromethods are often not possible or not pertinent). This book will assist beginners in the field of thermal analysis or calorimetry understand the principles of thermodynamics being applied to biological systems.

Biological systems are highly organized and extremely complicated.

What is whey milk allergy

The water and the diverse types of feeble interactions among the macromolecules make the interpretation of thermal events extremely hard. This book includes examples how to handle such problems.The Nature of Biological Systems as Revealed by Thermal Methods is unique in that it: has a wide spectrum, from molecules and biochemistry, tissues, and food, to whole organisms; combines practical problems (food processing, quality control, thermal denaturation of proteins, plants and little insects, etc.) with concrete solutions and interpretation; provides practical strategies and tools without «dry physics and mathematics»; initiates the application of thermal methods in new fields (e.g.

medicine); forces the reader to go into more detail of thermodynamics and thermal techniques; simplifies communication between biologists, medical doctors and experts of thermal analysis.Thebook is an invaluable resource for anyone interested in thermodynamics, including practising professionals applying thermal methods to biological problems; researchers and graduate students beginning work using thermal methods; and specialists of thermal analysis starting work on biological problems. In addition, this book will be a useful resource for libraries and institutes as the only book covering quantitative thermal analysis of biological systems.

Allergy to goat and sheep milk without allergy to cows’ milk


Cows’ milk allergy occurs in 2% to 6% of the baby population, being the most frequent cause of food allergy.

Numerous of these infants cannot tolerate goats’ or sheeps’ milk either (Bellioni-Businjco et al, 1999). Conversely, the goat’s or sheep’s milk allergies that are not associated with allergic cross-reactivity to cow’s milk are rare.

Until 2000 a dozen observations of caprine and ovine milk without allergy to bovine milk own been described (Wüthrich and Johansson,1995; Calvani and Allessandri, 1998; Umpiérrez et al, 1999). Since 2000 more frequent observations own been reported (Orlando and Breton-Bouveyron, 2000; Lamblin et al, 2001; Munoz-Martin et al, 2004; Restany, 2004; Martins, 2005; Attou et al, 2005; Tavarez et al, 2007; Boissieu et Dupont, 2008) and significative series own been described: 18 observations by Paty et al (2003), 31 by Bidat et al (2003) and 28 by Ah-Leung et al (2006).

Recently Vitte and Bongrand (2008) reported a fatal ewe’s milk-induced anaphylaxis on a 8 years ancient boy.

Generally chidren had severe allergic reactions, including anaphylaxis, a few minutes after consumption of goats’ or sheeps’ milk products but tolerated cows’ milk products. Clinical observations, skin prick testing and immunoglobulin IgE-binding studies confirmed the diagnosis of goat’s or sheeps’ milk allergy without associated cows’ milk allergy.

The characteristics of goat’s or sheep’s milk allergy differ from those of cow’s milk allergy because it affects older children and appears later (around 6 years). However, Umpiérrez et al (1999) reported on a two years ancient girl who experienced allergic reactions after eating goat cheese and after touching goat and sheep cheese, but not after consuming cow milk.

In the series of Bidat (2003) 19% of the children regularly consumed goats’ milk while previously allergic to cows’ milk.

The major allergenic proteins in cow’s milk are ß-lactoglobulin, a-lactalbumin, serum albumin and caseins (Räsänen et al, 1992). However, it has been suggested that caseins may be the main allergen both in children (Kohno et al, 1994) and adults (Stöger et al, 1993).

What is whey milk allergy

In their series of infants with goat’s or sheep’s milk allergy, Ah-Leung et al (2006) demonstrated by enzyme allergosorbent tests that the casein fractions and not the whey proteins were involved. Cow’s milk caseins were not at every or poorly recognized by the patient’s IgE, while aS1-, aS2- and ß-caseins from goat’s or sheep’s milk were recognized with high specificity and affinity. Unlike what is observed in cow’s milk allergy, k-casein was not recognized by the IgE antibodies. A similar predominant role of caseins has been observed by Umpiérrez et al (1999).

However, Tavares et al (2007) reported that a non-casein 14 kDa protein (probably a-lactalbunin) was involved for a 27 years ancient female patient exhibiting goats’ milk allergy not associated to cows’ milk allergy.

Due to severity of the anaphylactic reaction of patients with allergy to caprine and ovine milk, Boissieu and Dupont (2008) recommend to avoid eating cheese made from caprine or ovine milk (Feta, Roquefort, Ossau Iraty, Etorky etc.) and cheese not stored at home (restaurant, buffet, friends etc.). Care must be taken to present cheese made from bovine milk and cheese made from caprine or ovine cheese in separate plates to avoid the frequently observed cross-contaminations.

Moreover, allergic patients must be circunspect with numerous foods which can contain goat’s or sheep’s dairy proteins such as pizza, toasted cheese, Moussaka etc.

In this new context, the agroalimentary industry must now implement analytical methods to detect goat’s or sheep’s milk in bovine dairy products and in agro-alimentary products with added milk proteins. Most of the published analytical methods own been developed for the detection of bovine milk in the more expensive caprine or ovine milks. The detection limits are around 1% contamination since a lower percentage is not of economical interest.

Now, the detection of potentially allergenic goat’s milk or sheep’s milk in cow’s milk must be more sensitive, below to 10-100 ppm, in order to guarantee the allergenic safety of the cow milk dairy products.


References

Ah-Leung S, Bernard H, Bidat E et al, 2006. Allergy to goat and sheep milk without allergy to cow’s milk. Allergy 61: 1358–65

Attou D, Caherec A, Bensakhria S et al, 2005.

Allergie aux laits de chèvre et de brebis sans allergie associée au lait de vache. Rev Fr Allergol Immunol Clin 5: 601–607

Bellioni-Businco B, Paganelli R, Lucenti P, Giampietro PG, Perborn H, Businco L, 1999. Allergenicity of goat’s milk in children with cow’s milk allergy. J Allergy Clin Immunol, 103: 1191-1194

Bidat E, Rancé F, Baranes T et al, 2003. L’allergie au lait de chèvre ou de brebis chez l’enfant, sans allergie associée au lait de vache. Rev Fr Allergol 43: 273-277

Boissieu D, Dupont C, 2008. Allergy to goat and sheep milk without allergy to cow’s milk.

Arch Pediatr 15: 349-351

Calvani Jr M, Alessandri C, 1998. Anaphylaxis to sheep’s milk cheese in a kid unaffected by cow’s milk protein allergy. Eur J Pediatr 157: 17–19

Kohno Y, Honna K, Saito K et al, 1994. Preferential recognition of primary protein structures of casein by IgG and IgE antibodies of patients with milk allergy. Ann Allergy 7: 419-422

Lamblin C, Bourrier T, Orlando JP et al, 2001. Allergie aux laits de chêvre et de brebis sans allergie associée au lait de vache. Rev Fr Allergol Immunol Clin 41: 165–168

Martins P, Borrego LM, Pires G, Pinto PL, Afonso AR, Rosado-Pinto J, 2005.

Sheep and goat’s milk allergy—a case study. Allergy 60: 129-130

Muñoz-Martín T, de la Hoz Caballer B, Marañón Lizana F, González Mendiola R, Prieto Montaño P, Sánchez Cano M, 2004. Selective allergy to sheep’s and goat’s milk proteins. Allergol Immunopathol 32: 39-42

Orlando JP, Breton-Bouveyron A, 2000. Anaphylactoid reaction to goat’s milk. Allerg Immunol 32: 231-232

Paty E, Chedevergne F, Scheinmann P et al, 2003. Allergie au lait de chèvre et de brebis sans allergie associée au lait de vache.

Rev Fr Allergol 43: 455-462

Räsänen L, Lehto M, Reumala T, 1992. Diagnostic worth of skin and laboratory tests in cow’s milk allergy/intolerance. Clin Exp Allergy 22: 385-390

Stöger P, Wüthrich B, 1993. Type I allergy to cow milk proteins in adults. A retrospective study of 34 adult milk- and cheese-allergic patients. Int Arch Allergy Immunol 102: 399-407

Restani P, 2004 Goat milk allergenicity. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 39: 323-324

Tavares B, Pereira C, Rodrigues F, Loureiro G, Chieira C, 2007.

Goat’s milk allergy. Allergol Immunopathol 35: 113-116

Umpiérrez A, Quirce S, Marañón F, Cuesta J, García-Villamuza Y, Lahoz C, Sastre J, 1999. Allergy to goat and sheep cheese with excellent tolerance to cow cheese. Clin Exp Allergy 29: 1064-1068

Vitte J, Bongrand P, 2008. Fatal ewe’s milk-induced anaphylaxis: laboratory work-up. Arch Pédiatr 15: 1300-1303

Wüthrich B, Johansson SG, 1995. Allergy to cheese produced from sheep’s and goat’s milk but not to cheese produced from cow’s milk. J Allergy Clin Immunol 96: 270–273

The economic importance of dairy powders and concentrated products to dairy-producing countries is extremely significant, and there is a large demand for them in countries where milk production is low or non-existent.

In these markets, dairy products are made locally to meet the demand of consumers from recombined powders, anhydrous milk fat and concentrated dairy ingredients (evaporated and sweetened condensed milk).

This volume is the latest book in the Technical Series of The Society of Dairy Technology (SDT). Numerous scientific data own been available in journals and books in recent years, and the primary purpose of this text is to detail in one publication the manufacturing methods, scientific aspects, and properties of milk powders (full-fat, skimmed and high protein powders made from milk retentates), whey powders (WP) including WP concentrates, lactose, caseinates, sweetened condensed milk, evaporated milk and baby baby feed.

The book also covers the international standards relating to these products for trading purposes, as well as the hazards, such as explosion and fire, that may happen during the manufacture of dairy powders. The authors, who are every specialists in these products, own been chosen from around the world. The book will be of interest to dairy scientists, students, researchers and dairy operatives around the world.

For information regarding the SDT, please contact Maurice Walton, Executive Director, Society of Dairy Technology, P.O.

Box 12, Appleby in Westmorland, CA16 6YJ, UK. email: [email protected]

Also available from Wiley-Blackwell
Milk Processing and Quality Management
Edited by A.Y. Tamime
ISBN 978 1 4051 4530 5

Cleaning-in-Place
Edited by A.Y. Tamime
ISBN 978 1 4051 5503 8

Advanced Dairy Science and Technology
Edited by T. Britz and R. Robinson
ISBN 978 1 4051 3618 1

International Journal of Dairy Technology
Published quarterly
Print ISSN: 1364 727X
Online ISSN: 1471 0307

Milk-based hydrolysates for baby nutrition
Hydrolysates are produced by enzymatic hydrolysis of milk proteins, generating a product profile containing various peptide sizes and intact protein depending on whether a filtration process is applied.

Hydrolysed proteins are applied into formulas targeting the allergy management area and the comfort formula category.

There are two hydrolysate categories for use in baby nutrition:

  1. Extensive,filteredhydrolysates; almost every epitopes are destroyed.

    Ideal for allergic infants

  2. There is no clear effect of saccharose on the rheological properties of the tested yoghurt mimetics.
  3. Structure of samples containing 15% inulin and 6% saccharose resembles a commercial product.
  4. Partial,non-filteredhydrolysates; minimal number of epitopes are still present. Ideal for allergy prevention and comfort products
  5. Yoghurt mimetics with 15% inulin are characterized by higher values for most of the tested rheological and texture features.
  6. Yoghurt mimetics with 15% content of inulin are firmer than these with 13% inulin.

Formulas containing hydrolysed proteins are crucial for the nutrition of infants who are allergic to cow’s milk proteins or identified as being in the allergy risk group, as allergy-causing areas (epitopes) are destroyed or reduced to a minimum in the hydrolysis process.

Animal studies own shown that partial hydrolysates can induce oral tolerance to intact proteins.

Oral tolerance is the athletic non-response of the immune system to an allergen istered orally. If oral tolerance fails, food allergy occurs, which means oral tolerance is a critical process in the first few months of life.

Ingestion of a protein hydrolysate, as opposed to the intact protein or free amino acids, is thought to facilitate protein digestion and absorption and increase plasma amino acid availability.

Arla Foods Ingredients has a wide range of hydrolysed casein and whey proteins which can be used for allergy treatment and prevention as well as comfort.

These products are designed and tested for significant quality descriptors such as antigenicity, molecular weight distribution and degree of hydrolysis to ensure a consistent quality to this sensitive consumer group.

Leading image: Artistic interpretation of a protein hydrolysate.

Arla Foods Ingredients supports the WHO recommendation for exclusive breastfeeding for the first six months of an infant’s life and continued breastfeeding up to the age of two or beyond in combination with nutritionally appropriate complementary foods.

2016
Volume 19
Issue 3

Topic:

Food Science and Technology

ELECTRONIC
JOURNALOF
POLISH
AGRICULTURAL
UNIVERSITIES

Copyright © Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Przyrodniczego we Wroclawiu, ISSN 1505-0297

Toczek K.

, Glibowski P. , Tracz S. 2016. EFFECT OF SACCHAROSE ON RHEOLOGICAL AND TEXTURAL PROPERTIES OF YOGHURT MIMETICS BASED ON INULIN AND WHEY PROTEIN, EJPAU 19(3), #01.
Available Online: http://www.ejpau.media.pl/volume19/issue3/art-01.html

Kamil Toczek, Paweł Glibowski, Sylwia Tracz
Department of Biotechnology, Human Nutrition and Science of Food Commodities, Faculty of Food Science and Biotechnology, University of Life Sciences in Lublin, Poland

Key words: yoghurt, inulin, whey protein, saccharose.

Yogurts are one of the most dynamically developing groups of dairy products. The nutritional worth of milk fermented beverages is as high as milk, whereas the dietetic and healthy worth of yoghurt is unique and incomparable with milk. This worth results from the biological activity of live lactic acid bacteria [19]. More and more yoghurts contain every sorts of additives that maintain the appropriate structure, preventing syneresis and substances that stimulate growth of lactic acid bacteria. Such substances include inulin and whey proteins [18].

Oligofructose and inulin are one of the best known prebiotics. They are added to a fermented food to improve the survival rate of probiotic bacteria during storage [11].

They are also added to every kinds of confectionery and bakery products [13]. Inulin is a natural carbohydrate belonging to the fructans. It can be produced from chicory, dahlia tubers and Jerusalem artichoke. It may be a substitute for fat, sweetener, filler; therefore it has numerous applications in the food industry [8]. It consists of several tens of fructose molecules linked by Beta (2 → 1) and a single glucose molecule attached to the reducing finish of the chain.

Depending on the source, inulin may own a diverse degree of polymerization. It is not digested in the little intestine reaching the large intestine essentially intact, where is fermented [2, 3, 14, 15].

In the yoghurt production, whey proteins are also used. The nutritional worth of whey proteins are high and results from their amino acid composition [12]. Love inulin, they are widely applied in the dairy industry as well as in the meat industry, baking industry or confectionery. Whey proteins increase the nutritional worth of products, improve the sensory and organoleptic properties, and due to their capacity to bind water, they own an effect on the rheological properties of products (e.g.

viscosity) [5].

The purpose of this work was to research the possibility of obtaining a product similar to yoghurt based on inulin as a texturizing agent and whey powder as a carbon source for yoghurt bacteria. The influence of saccharose on rheological and textural properties also was investigated.

MATERIAL AND METHODS

Material
Whey powder SICALAC® (Euroserum, Port-sur-Saône, France), containing 72.5% lactose, 11.5% protein, 8.5% ash, 1.5% fat, and 3% water (manufacturer’s data), inulin Frutafit®Tex! with a degree of polymerization ≥23 (Sensus Operations C.V., Roosendaal, The Netherlands), saccharose (DIAMANT, Poland), lyophilized yoghurt culture Yo-Flex (YC-X11 Yo-Flex Thermophilic Lactic Culture type Yoghurt CHR; Chr.

Hansen, Poland) containing Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus (total cell count cfu/g: ≥1E+11) were used for yoghurt mimetics production.

Methods
Two versions of yoghurt mimetics containing diverse amounts of inulin – 13 and 15% were prepared. The solutions were prepared by mixing a whey powder (6.25%) with distilled water at room temperature using a magnetic stirrer HS MS 11 (Wigo) until completely dissolved. During stirring, saccharose and inulin were added.

These solutions were covered with aluminum foil to prevent evaporation. The solutions were placed in a water bath at 70°C for 30 min and mixing occasionally. After this time, the solutions were cooled to a temperature under 45°C.

What is whey milk allergy

Then, Direct Vat Set yoghurt culture (YC-X11 Yo-Flex) was added at a level of 0.015% (w/w) and the solution was stirred on a magnetic stirrer to dissolve it. Subsequently, the solutions were poured into the containers (3 × 40 ml) and placed in a thermostatic cabinet, where were first heated for 5 hours at 45°C, and then cooled to a temperature of 5°C. pH was measured before inoculation and after fermentation using pH meter CP-401 (Elmetron Sp. J., Zabrze, Poland).

Texture analysis
The texture analyses were performed by two sequential penetration events at the crosshead speed 1 mm/s (immersion probe in the test sample 15 mm), separated by a relaxation phase of 30 s using a TA-XT2i texture analyser (Stable Microsystems, Goalding, UK) equipped with cylindrical probe (1 cm diameter).

The results were analyzed on the computer, giving the results of hardness, adhesiveness and cohesiveness [10].

Rheometry
Rheological measurements were made using a rheometer RS 300 (Haake, Karlsruhe, Germany) in coaxial plate – plate system. Every the tests were performed at 20°C, which was provided by circulating water bath Haake DC30 (Haake, Karlsruhe, Germany). Results were recorded using a computer program RheoWin Pro 2.91 (Haake, Karlsruhe, Germany). Apparent viscosity was measured at 10 (s -1) for 120 seconds. For the analytical purposes, average worth was calculated from 90th, 105th and 120th second of the measurement [10].

Statistical analysis
The rheological and textural measurements were completed in three independent trials.

Each analysis was performed in duplicate. The worth of the standard deviation, and the significance of differences between the results was sure using test the Student-Newman-Keuls by using SAS Enterprise 3.0.2.4.1.4. (SAS Institute Inc., USA).

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Viscosity
The highest increase of viscosity was observed in the samples with the addition of 6% saccharose, while the smallest with 4% saccharose (Fig. 1). In the samples with lower content of inulin, the effect of saccharose addition was ambiguous.

Viscosity of samples with 4% saccharose was the same as for the sample without saccharose. In other samples, the addition of sugar caused a decrease of viscosity. Viscosity, from the consumer point of view, is a extremely significant element characterizing the rheological properties of yoghurt.

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Therefore, it is significant to maintain the desired viscosity and consistency of the product, for the entire duration of its shelf life [13]. Glibowski & Bochyńska [7] showed that increase of viscosity in solutions with whey proteins and inulin are responsible mainly high concentrations of whey proteins, still higher concentration of inulin also has the effect in increasing viscosity. The research results (Fig. 1) are ambiguous; the concentration of whey protein in the analyzed samples might own been too little to own an impact on structure of solution.

Hardness
Figure 2 shows the results of mimetics hardness.

In case of samples containing 13% inulin, it was found that the hardness of every the tested samples was similar and ranged between 21,1 to 22,2 g. For samples with 15% inulin, hardness differences were much larger. The highest hardness was recorded for yoghurts containing 6% of saccharose and the lowest hardness was observed in the samples with 4% addition of saccharose. As it was in case of viscosity, hardness increase was also dependent on the concentration of inulin.

This relationship is confirmed in other studies in which the hardness of inulin gels, expressed as a force of penetration depend on concentration of inulin [4]. Glibowski and Bochyńska [7] reported higher hardness of inulin-whey protein gels at higher concentration of inulin (15%) probably due to interaction inulin-whey proteins.

Adhesiveness
The addition of saccharose increased the adhesiveness of every samples regardless of the content of inulin. Much greater adhesiveness revealed mimetics with 15% inulin content (Fig. 3), as compared to those containing 13% inulin.

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Adhesiveness of the product also is dependent on the concentration of inulin. Adhesiveness in the samples with lower content of inulin remained at a similar level, however, 6% addition of succharose cause significant (p ≤ 0.05) increase in comparison to samples without saccharose. Low adhesiveness such as shut to zero is characterized by liquids and in this case of solution is undesirable [6].

Cohesiveness
The results showed there was no link between the content of inulin and cohesiveness (Fig. 4). Results of cohesiveness were higher compared to the reference product (Tab.

1). The addition of saccharose did not cause clear change in cohesiveness in the samples with 13% inulin content, while a significant increase was observed in 15% inulin mimetics with the addition of 6% saccharose. Cohesiveness values are within the range of 0 to 1, where 0 means that the sample after deformation, does not return to its original shape, and 1 means. that there was a finish recovery as is the case with the liquid [6].

pH
pH values of the analyzed samples before fermentation range from 6.20 to 6.30.

After the fermentation mimetics containing 13% inulin and saccharose showed no significant pH difference. pH remained at a constant level between 4.22 and 4.28. These values were higher than pH the reference product, without saccharose (pH = 4.05) (Tab. 1). The pH values of products with 15% inulin depended on the concentration of saccharose, and ranged from 4.30 to 4.49. There was no effect of inulin on the final product pH which was confirmed in other studies [13].

For better interpretation and for comparison, of the results, commercial yogurts were analyzed.

In the majority, the obtained results did not match with the results of studied mimetics. The only similarity to commercial yoghurts were shown in case of viscosity for the samples with 15% of inulin and 6% of saccharose. pH of mimetics was also at a similar level to a pH of typical yogurt. This confirms the fact that the inulin does not affect the pH of product.

Interactions between whey proteins and inulin are not well understood [7]. It was proven that inulin interacts with whey proteins. Every of milk proteins with the exception of alpha-lactalbumin join to the inulin.

Beta-lactoglobulin, which is the most abundant whey protein, is responsible for the gelation of whey protein solutions. The other hand, alpha-lactalbumin assists in this process [9]. In practice, the most comprehensive assessment of the quality can be achieved by texture analysis. It allows the complicated characteristics of the product taking into account its mechanical properties and geometry [1]. The rheological properties of yoghurt depend on the quality of the raw material, quantity and helpful of structure-forming additives, the fermentation conditions and the mechanical impact on the product [20].

Texture is extremely significant for consumers and producers because heavily affects our eating habits, shapes our preferences and is an indicator of freshness. It is also significant in the transport and processing, because it determines the handling of products [16, 17]. Inulin and its beneficial effects on texture of fermented products caused that it is widely used in the dairy industry [13].

  • There is no clear effect of saccharose on the rheological properties of the tested yoghurt mimetics.
  • Structure of samples containing 15% inulin and 6% saccharose resembles a commercial product.

  • Yoghurt mimetics with 15% inulin are characterized by higher values for most of the tested rheological and texture features.
  • Yoghurt mimetics with 15% content of inulin are firmer than these with 13% inulin.

Accepted for print: 30.06.2016


Kamil Toczek
Department of Biotechnology, Human Nutrition and Science of Food Commodities, Faculty of Food Science and Biotechnology, University of Life Sciences in Lublin, Poland
8 Skromna Street
20-704 Lublin
Poland
email: [email protected]

Paweł Glibowski
Department of Biotechnology, Human Nutrition and Science of Food Commodities, Faculty of Food Science and Biotechnology, University of Life Sciences in Lublin, Poland
8 Skromna Street
20-704 Lublin
Poland
email: [email protected]

Sylwia Tracz
Department of Biotechnology, Human Nutrition and Science of Food Commodities, Faculty of Food Science and Biotechnology, University of Life Sciences in Lublin, Poland
8 Skromna Street
20-704 Lublin
Poland
email: [email protected]



Accepted for print: 30.06.2016


Kamil Toczek
Department of Biotechnology, Human Nutrition and Science of Food Commodities, Faculty of Food Science and Biotechnology, University of Life Sciences in Lublin, Poland
8 Skromna Street
20-704 Lublin
Poland
email: [email protected]

Paweł Glibowski
Department of Biotechnology, Human Nutrition and Science of Food Commodities, Faculty of Food Science and Biotechnology, University of Life Sciences in Lublin, Poland
8 Skromna Street
20-704 Lublin
Poland
email: [email protected]

Sylwia Tracz
Department of Biotechnology, Human Nutrition and Science of Food Commodities, Faculty of Food Science and Biotechnology, University of Life Sciences in Lublin, Poland
8 Skromna Street
20-704 Lublin
Poland
email: [email protected]




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