What is the medical definition of a food allergy

Dr. Nicole Chadha received her B.A. in psychology from the University of Kansas, then returned to her southern roots in Georgia to pursue her career in medicine. She graduated with her medical degree from the Medical College of Georgia in Augusta, GA. She subsequently completed her pediatric residency at Palmetto Health Richland Children’s Hospital associated with the University of South Carolina and fellowship in Allergy/Immunology at Vanderbilt University.
Upon completion of her fellowship, Dr. Chadha remained on faculty at Vanderbilt as an Assistant Professor within the Division of Pediatric Allergy, Immunology, and Pulmonary Medicine.

Dr. Chadha is board certified in Pediatrics and Allergy and Immunology. She is a member of the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology, and the American College of Asthma Allergy and Immunology.

Dr. Chadha chose to specialize in Allergy in specific because she enjoys studying the intricacies of the immune system and likes that the specialty allows her to treat both children and adults. The chronic nature of allergic disease affords her the chance to build lasting relationships with her patients.

She finds grand reward in providing care and education that results in an improved quality of life for her patients. Dr. Chadha has numerous interests in a variety of allergic and immunologic conditions, including food allergy, asthma, urticaria, allergic rhinitis, primary immunodeficiency and eosinophilic esophagitis. She has contributed to research on eosinophilic esophagitis in children and has presented her work both locally and nationally.

Dr. Chadha lives in Charlotte with her husband, Ashley, a pediatric pulmonologist, 2 young sons, and 2 dogs.

In her free time, she enjoys traveling, reading, cooking, interior design, volunteering and taking part in community events.

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Education

  1. Medical School: Medical College of Georgia
  2. Residency: University of South Carolina, Palmetto Health Richland Children’s Hospital
  3. Fellowship: Vanderbilt University, Allergy/Immunology
  4. College: University of Kansas, B.A., Psychology


If your kid has symptoms after eating certain foods, he or she may own a food allergy.

A food allergy occurs when the body’s immune system sees a certain food as harmful and reacts by causing symptoms.

This is an allergic reaction. Foods that cause allergic reactions are allergens.

Non-IgE Mediated Food Allergies

Most symptoms of non-IgE mediated food allergies involve the digestive tract. Symptoms may be vomiting and diarrhea. The symptoms can take longer to develop and may final longer than IgE mediated allergy symptoms. Sometimes, a reaction to a food allergen occurs up 3 days after eating the food allergen.

When an allergic reaction occurs with this type of allergy, epinephrine is generally not needed.

In general, the best way to treat these allergies is to stay away from the food that causes the reaction. Under are examples of conditions related to non-IgE mediated food allergies.

Not every children who react to a certain food own an allergy. They may own food intolerance. Examples are lactose intolerance, gluten intolerance, sulfite sensitivity or dye sensitivity. Staying away from these foods is the best way to avoid a reaction. Your child’s doctor may propose other steps to prevent a reaction. If your kid has any food allergy symptoms, see your child’s doctor or allergist. Only a doctor can properly diagnose whether your kid has an IgE- or non-IgE food allergy.

Both can be present in some children.

Eosinophilic Esophagitis (EoE)

Eosinophilic (ee-uh-sin-uh-fil-ik) esophagitis is an inflamed esophagus. The esophagus is a tube from the throat to the stomach. An allergy to a food can cause this condition.

With EoE, swallowing food can be hard and painful. Symptoms in infants and toddlers are irritability, problems with eating and poor weight acquire. Older children may own reflux, vomiting, stomach pain, chest pain and a feeling love food is “stuck” in their throat. The symptoms can happen days or even weeks after eating a food allergen.

EoE is treated by special diets that remove the foods that are causing the condition.

Medication may also be used to reduce inflammation.

Food Protein-Induced Enterocolitis Syndrome (FPIES)

FPIES is another type of food allergy. It most often affects young infants.

What is the medical definition of a food allergy

Symptoms generally don’t appear for two or more hours. Symptoms include vomiting, which starts about 2 hours or later after eating the food causing the condition. This condition can also cause diarrhea and failure to acquire weight or height. Once the baby stops eating the food causing the allergy, the symptoms go away. Rarely, severe vomiting and diarrhea can happen which can lead to dehydration and even shock. Shock occurs when the body is not getting enough blood flow. Emergency treatment for severe symptoms must happen correct away at a hospital. The foods most likely to cause a reaction are dairy, soy, rice, oat, barley, green beans, peas, sweet potatoes, squash and poultry.

Allergic Proctocolitis

Allergic proctocolitis is an allergy to formula or breast milk.

This condition inflames the lower part of the intestine. It affects infants in their first year of life and generally ends by age 1 year.

The symptoms include blood-streaked, watery and mucus-filled stools. Infants may also develop green stools, diarrhea, vomiting, anemia (low blood count) and fussiness. When properly diagnosed, symptoms resolve once the offending food(s) are removed from the diet.

Medical review December 2014.

“This discovery reverses food allergies in mice, and we own numerous people with allergies volunteering their own cells for us to use in lab testing to move this research forward,” said professor John Gordon, lead scientist behind the discovery just published in the current issue of the Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology.

The findings open the door to test this new allergy treatment in “humanized mice”—mice with non-existent immune systems implanted with cells from a human immune system, for example, from a peanut-allergic person.

With Health Canada approval, the first human trial could start in about one year, Gordon said. 

“If we can reliably ‘cure’ food allergies, or related conditions such as asthma or autoimmune diseases such as multiple sclerosis with this new therapy, it would be life-changing for affected individuals.”

Roughly 2.5 million Canadians self-report having at least one food allergy.  Anaphylaxis, defined as a severe rapid-onset allergic reaction, can be life-threatening and treatment options are limited.

The discovery involves generating a type of naturally occurring immune cell that sends a signal to reverse the hyper-immune response present in allergic reactions.  That signal triggers another “off switch” that turns off reactive cells further along the allergic pathway. 

“We predict the treatment could be on the market within the next five to 10 years,” said Gordon, who is also a research leader in the Allergy, Genes and Environment (AllerGen) Network.

AllerGen—part of the federally funded Networks of Centres of Excellence program—aims to assist Canadians address the challenges of living with asthma, allergies, anaphylaxis and related immune diseases.

Gordon’s team will collaborate with other AllerGen investigators located at the U of S, McGill University, Queen’s University, McMaster University, and University of Alberta to pilot the new technique.

“This discovery portends a major breakthrough towards a therapeutic reversal of food allergen sensitivity,” said Dr.

Judah Denburg, scientific director and CEO of AllerGen. “The treatment prevents anaphylactic responses in what were previously fully sensitive mice, opening the door for translating this therapy into the clinic.”

There is compelling evidence this technique could be effective in humans.  In 2010, Gordon’s team demonstrated they could reverse an asthmatic response in human cells in a test tube.

What is the medical definition of a food allergy

Using three applications of a similar therapy in a 2012 study, the researchers effectively eliminated asthma in afflicted mice, within only eight weeks.

“Even if we only cure 25 per cent of subjects, we will dramatically improve the health of those individuals, and also reduce healthcare system expenses,” said Gordon, who worked with Wojciech Dawicki, a research associate and the primary author and lead researcher in this study. Master’s student Chunyan Li and lab technicians Xiaobei Zhang and Jennifer Town also worked on the project.

Here’s how the technique works:

  1. Gordon’s pioneering treatment involves producing dendritic cells in a test tube and then exposing them to a unique stir of proteins, a vitamin A-related acid naturally occurring in the human gut, and to the allergen, in this case, peanut or ovalbumin (egg white protein).

    The modified dendritic cells are then reintroduced into the mouse. 

  2. The key component of this research is dendritic cells, which serve as the gate-keepers of the immune system and are present in tissues in contact with the external environment, such as the skin and the inner lining of the nose, lungs, stomach and intestines.
  3. Using this technique, the researchers were capable to almost eliminate the allergic reaction by converting allergen-sensitive immune cells into cells that mimic the response seen in healthy, non-allergic individuals.  

The treatment reduced the observed symptoms of anaphylaxis, and lowered other key protein markers in the allergic response by up to 90 per cent.

Food allergy is a growing public health issue in Canada.

Currently, there is no known cure. According to the Canadian Institute for Health Information, an estimated 171,000 Canadians visited emergency rooms for allergic reactions from 2013 to 2014, the rate of anaphylaxis visits increased by 95 per cent from 2006 to 2014, and the severity of reactions is increasing.

Gordon said the new technique also shows promise for treating autoimmune disorders such as multiple sclerosis. “It would take extremely little to adapt the therapy for autoimmune diseases,” he said.

Funding for the research was provided by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research and the AllerGen Networks of Centres of Excellence.

 

Brief Biography

Thomas Eiwegger earned his doctoral degree at the Medical University of Vienna, Austria, where he also completed his paediatric training.

He did his post doctoral training in the Swiss Institute of Asthma and Allergy in the group of Cezmi Akdis from 2008 to 2010 and after returned to the Medical University of Vienna where he trained in paediatric allergy and respiratory medicine. Before moving to Sickkids, Eiwegger was Principal Investigator and Associate Professor at the Department of Paediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, Medical University of Vienna, Austria.

IgE Mediated Food Allergies

The IgE mediated food allergies most common in infants and children are eggs, milk, peanuts, tree nuts, soy and wheat.

The allergic reaction can involve the skin, mouth, eyes, lungs, heart, gut and brain. Some of the symptoms can include:

  1. Feeling love something terrible is about to happen
  2. Shortness of breath, trouble breathing, wheezing
  3. Swelling of the lips, tongue or throat
  4. Skin rash, itching, hives
  5. Stomach pain, vomiting, diarrhea
  6. Immunoglobulin E (IgE) mediated.

    Symptoms result from the body’s immune system making antibodies called Immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibodies. These IgE antibodies react with a certain food.

  7. Non-IgE mediated. Other parts of the body’s immune system react to a certain food. This reaction causes symptoms, but does not involve an IgE antibody. Someone can own both IgE mediated and non-IgE mediated food allergies.

Sometimes allergy symptoms are mild. Other times they can be severe. Take every allergic symptoms seriously. Mild and severe symptoms can lead to a serious allergic reaction called anaphylaxis (anna-fih-LACK-sis).

This reaction generally involves more than one part of the body and can get worse quick. Anaphylaxis must be treated correct away to provide the best chance for improvement and prevent serious, potentially life-threatening complications.

Treat anaphylaxis with epinephrine. This medicine is safe and comes in an easy-to-use device called an auto-injector. You can’t rely on antihistamines to treat anaphylaxis. The symptoms of an anaphylactic reaction happen shortly after contact with an allergen. In some individuals, there may be a delay of two to three hours before symptoms first appear.

Cross-Reactivity and Oral Allergy Syndrome

Having an IgE mediated allergy to one food can mean your kid is allergic to similar foods.

For example, if your kid is allergic to shrimp, he or she may be allergic to other types of shellfish, such as crab or crayfish. Or if your kid is allergic to cow’s milk, he or she may also be allergic to goat’s and sheep’s milk. The reaction between diverse foods is called cross-reactivity. This happens when proteins in one food are similar to the proteins in another food.

Cross-reactivity also can happen between latex and certain foods.

For example, a kid who has an allergy to latex may also own an allergy to bananas, avocados, kiwis or chestnuts.

Some people who own allergies to pollens, such as ragweed and grasses, may also be allergic to some foods. Proteins in the pollens are love the proteins in some fruits and vegetables. So, if your kid is allergic to ragweed, he or she may own an allergic reaction to melons and bananas. That’s because the protein in ragweed looks love the proteins in melons and bananas. This condition is oral allergy syndrome.

Symptoms of an oral allergy syndrome include an itchy mouth, throat or tongue.

Symptoms can be more severe and may include hives, shortness of breath and vomiting. Reactions generally happen only when someone eats raw food. In rare cases, reactions can be life-threatening and need epinephrine.

Two Categories of Food Allergies

  • American Board of Allergy and Immunology
  • Non-IgE mediated. Other parts of the body’s immune system react to a certain food. This reaction causes symptoms, but does not involve an IgE antibody. Someone can own both IgE mediated and non-IgE mediated food allergies.
  • Immunoglobulin E (IgE) mediated. Symptoms result from the body’s immune system making antibodies called Immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibodies.

    These IgE antibodies react with a certain food.

  • American Board of Pediatrics

Research Interests

Developing and facilitating new concepts in the treatment of food allergy

Eiwegger’s main interests are mechanisms of IgE-mediated allergy. He will focus in specific on a better understanding of the mechanisms of tolerance development to food allergens and markers thereof. Eiwegger will define new treatment approaches by delineating the sequence of events that take put in children that lose their food allergy.

Publications

Saidova A, Hershkop AM, Ponce M, Eiwegger T.

Allergen-Specific T Cells in IgE-Mediated Food Allergy. Arch Immunol Ther Exp (Warsz) 2017 in press.

Gona-Hopler M, Pfaller B, Argeny J, Kanolzer S, Gruber S, Schmidthaler K, et al. Aspergillus fumigatus-specific immunoglobulin levels in BALF of CF patients. ERJ Open Res 2017; 3.

Diesner SC, Lukas J, Stifter E, Raimann A, Nachbaur E, Eiwegger T, Renner S, Geleff S, Emminger W, Szépfalusi Z. Bilateral infiltrative dacryoadenitis and granulomatous pneumonia in an 11-year ancient boy: a case report.

Klin Padiatr 2017; 229:96-9.

Diesner SC, Bergmayr C, Pfitzner B, Assmann V, Krishnamurthy D, Starkl P, Endesfelder D, Rothballer M, Welzl G, Rattei T, Eiwegger T, Szépfalusi Z, Fehrenbach H, Jensen-Jarolim E, Hartmann A, Pali-Schöll I, Untersmayr E, A distinct microbiota composition is associated with protection from food allergy in an oral mouse immunization model. Clin Immunol. 2016 Dec;173:10-18. doi: 10.1016.

Akdis M, Aab A, Altunbulakli C, Azkur K, Costa RA, Crameri R, Duan S, Eiwegger T, Eljaszewicz A, Ferstl R, Frei R, Garbani M, Globinska A, Hess L, Huitema C, Kubo T, Komlosi Z, Konieczna P, Kovacs N, Kucuksezer UC, Meyer N, Morita H, Olzhausen J, O’Mahony L, Pezer M, Prati M, Rebane A, Rhyner C, Rinaldi A, Sokolowska M, Stanic B, Sugita K, Treis A, van de Veen W, Wanke K, Wawrzyniak M, Wawrzyniak P, Wirz OF, Zakzuk JS, Akdis CA: Interleukins (from IL-1 to IL-38), interferons, transforming growth factor beta, and TNF-alpha: Receptors, functions, and roles in diseases.

J Allergy Clin Immunol 2016;138:984-1010

Broekman HCH, Eiwegger T, Upton J, Bogh KL. IgE – The Main Player of Food Allergy. Drug Discovery Today: Disease Models – October 2016. DOI: 10.1016/j.ddmod.2016.07.001.

Hansen CS, Hansen CS, Dufva M, Bøgh KL, Sullivan E, Patel J, Eiwegger T, Szépfalusi Z, Nielsen M, Christiansen A, Linear epitope mapping of peanut allergens demonstrates individualized and persistent antibody binding patterns, Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology  (2016), doi: 10.1016/ j.jaci.2016.06.019.

Ponce M, Diesner SC, Szepfalusi Z, Eiwegger T, Markers of tolerance development to food allergens. 2016 Oct;71(10):1393-404. doi: 10.1111/all.12953

Angelina A, Sirvent S, Palladino C, Vereda A, Cuesta-Herranz J, Eiwegger T, Rodriguez R, Breitendeder H, Villalba M, Palomares O.

The Lipid-interaction capacity of Sin a 2 and Ara h 1, major mustard and peanut allegens of the cupin superfamily, endorses allergenicity. Allergy. 2016 Mar 17 doi 1111/all.12887 (epub ahead of print).

O’Mahony L, Akdis CA, Eiwegger T. Innate mechanisms can predict successful allergy immunotherapy. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2016 Feb, 137(2):559-61.

Christiansen A, Kringelum JV, Hansen CS, Bogh KL, Sullivan E, Patel J, Rigby NM, Eiwegger T, Szepfalusi Z, de Masi F, Nielsen M, Lund O, Dufva M.

High-throughput sequencing enhanced phage display enables the identification of patient-specific epitope motifs in serum. Sci Rep 2015; 5: 12913.

Soyka MB, Holzmann D, Basinski TM, Wawrzyniak M, Bannert C, Bürgler S, Akkoc T, Treis A, Rückert B, Akdis M, Akdis CA, Eiwegger T.

What is the medical definition of a food allergy

The induction of IL-33 in the sinus epithelium and its influence on T-helper cell responses. PlosOne 2015; 10: e0123163.

Boyman O, Kaegi S, Akdis S, Bavbek S, Bossios A, Chatzipetrou A, Eiwegger T, Firinu D, Harr T, Knol E, Matucci A, Palomares O, Schmidt-Weber C, Simon HU, Steiner UC, Vultaggio A, Akdis CA and Spertini F. EAACI IG Biologicals task force paper on the use of biologic agents in allergic disorders. Allergy 2015; 70(7): 727-754.

Upton J, Eiwegger T. How Endless Should We Go.

What is the medical definition of a food allergy

Int Arch Allergy Immunol. 2015;168(3):147-9: doi: 10.1159/000443764. Epub 2016 Jan 21.

Ackerbauer D, Bublin M, Radauer C, Varga EM, Hafner C, Ebner C, Szépfalusi Z, Fröschl R, Hoffmann-Sommergruber K, Eiwegger T, Breiteneder H. Component-resolved IgE profiles in Austrian patients with suspected peanut allergy.

What is the medical definition of a food allergy

Int Arch Allergy Immunol 2015;166:13-24.

Szepfalusi Z, Bannert C, Ronceray L, Mayer E, Hassler M, Wissmann E, Dehlink E, Gruber S, Graf A, Lupinek C, Valenta R, Eiwegger T, Urbanek R. Preventive sublingual immunotherapy in preschool children: first evidence for safety and pro-tolerogenic effects. Pediatr Allergy Immunol 2015; 25:788-795.

Martin-Fontecha M, Eiwegger T, Jartti T, Rueda-Zubiaurre A, Tiringer K, Stepanow J, Puhakka T, Ruckert B, Ortega-Gutierrez S, Lopez-Rodriguez ML, Akdis M, Akdis CA, Palomares O.

The expression of cannabinoid receptor 1 is significantly increased in atopic patients. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2014; 133: 926-929 e922.

Bublin M, Eiwegger T, Breiteneder H. Do lipids influence the allergic sensitization process? J Allergy Clin Immunol 2014.

Bogh KL, Nielsen H, Eiwegger T, Madsen CB, Mills EN, Rigby NM, Szepfalusi Z, Roggen EL. IgE versus IgG4 epitopes of the peanut allergen Ara h 1 in patients with severe allergy. Mol Immunol 2014; 58: 169-176.

Tiringer K, Treis A, Kanolzer S, Witt C, Chanim B, Gruber S, Schmidthaler K, Renner S, Dehlink E, Nachbaur E, Frischer T, Klepetko W, Akdis CA, Szepfalusi Z, Eiwegger T.

Differential expression of IL-33 and HMGB1 in the lungs of stable cystic fibrosis patients. Eur Respir J. 2014 Sep;44(3):802-5. doi:10.1183/09031936.00046614.

Tiringer K, Treis A, Fucik P, Gona M, Gruber S, Renner S, Dehlink E, Nachbaur E, Horak F, Jaksch P, Doring G, Crameri R, Jung A, Rochat MK, Hormann M, Spittler A, Klepetko W, Akdis CA, Szepfalusi Z, Frischer T, Eiwegger T. A Th17- and Th2-skewed cytokine profile in cystic fibrosis lungs represents a potential risk factor for pseudomonas aeruginosa infection. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2013;187:621-629.

Prelog M, Schonlaub J, Jeller V, Almanzar G, Hofner K, Gruber S, Eiwegger T, Wurzner R. Reduced varicella-zoster-virus (VZV)-specific lymphocytes and IgG antibody avidity in solid organ transplant recipients.

Vaccine 2013;31:2420-2426.

Diesner SC, Gruber S, Dehlink E, Muhlebner A, Eiwegger T, Szepfalusi Z. Somnolence upon allergen provocation in a kid with hen’s egg allergy. Klin Padiatr 2013.
24. Soyka MB, Wawrzyniak P, Eiwegger T, Holzmann D, Treis A, Wanke K, Kast JI, Akdis CA. Faulty epithelial barrier in chronic rhinosinusitis: The regulation of tight junctions by ifn-gamma and IL-4. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2012;130:1087-1096 e1010.

Soyka MB, Treis A, Eiwegger T, Menz G, Zhang S, Holzmann D, Akdis CA, Meyer N. Regulation and expression of il-32 in chronic rhinosinusitis.

Allergy 2012;67:790-798.

Meyer N, Christoph J, Makrinioti H, Indermitte P, Rhyner C, Soyka M, Eiwegger T, Chalubinski M, Wanke K, Fujita H, Wawrzyniak P, Burgler S, Zhang S, Akdis M, Menz G, Akdis C. Inhibition of angiogenesis by il-32: Possible role in asthma. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2012;129:964-973 e967.

Mayer E, Bannert C, Gruber S, Klunker S, Spittler A, Akdis CA, Szepfalusi Z, Eiwegger T. Cord blood derived cd4+ cd25(high) t cells become functional regulatory t cells upon antigen encounter. PLoS One 2012;7:e29355.

Gruber S, Eiwegger T, Nachbaur E, Tiringer K, Aigner C, Jaksch P, Keplinger M, Klepetko W, Lang G, Taghavi S, Graf A, Eichler I, Frischer T, Szepfalusi Z.

Lung transplantation in children and young adults: A 20-year single-centre experience. Eur Respir J 2012;40:462-469.

Eiwegger T, Gruber S, Szepfalusi Z, Akdis CA. Novel developments in the mechanisms of immune tolerance to allergens. Hum Vaccin Immunother 2012;8:1485-1491.

Bogh KL, Nielsen H, Madsen CB, Mills EN, Rigby N, Eiwegger T, Szepfalusi Z, Roggen EL. Ige epitopes of intact and digested ara h 1: A comparative study in humans and rats.

Mol Immunol 2012;51:337-346.

In most cases, people with allergies develop mild to moderate symptoms, such as watery eyes, a runny nose or a rash. But sometimes, exposure to an allergen can cause a life-threatening allergic reaction known as anaphylaxis. This severe reaction happens when an over-release of chemicals puts the person into shock. Allergies to food, insect stings, medications and latex are most frequently associated with anaphylaxis.

A second anaphylactic reaction, known as a biphasic reaction, can happen as endless as 12 hours after the initial reaction.

Call 911 and get to the nearest emergency facility at the first sign of anaphylaxis, even if you own already istered epinephrine, the drug used to treat severe allergic reactions.

Just because an allergic person has never had an anaphylactic reaction in the past to an offending allergen, doesn’t mean that one won’t happen in the future. If you own had an anaphylactic reaction in the past, you are at risk of future reactions.

Board Certifications

  1. American Board of Allergy and Immunology
  2. American Board of Pediatrics

Research Interests

Developing and facilitating new concepts in the treatment of food allergy

Eiwegger’s main interests are mechanisms of IgE-mediated allergy.

He will focus in specific on a better understanding of the mechanisms of tolerance development to food allergens and markers thereof. Eiwegger will define new treatment approaches by delineating the sequence of events that take put in children that lose their food allergy.

Publications

Saidova A, Hershkop AM, Ponce M, Eiwegger T. Allergen-Specific T Cells in IgE-Mediated Food Allergy. Arch Immunol Ther Exp (Warsz) 2017 in press.

Gona-Hopler M, Pfaller B, Argeny J, Kanolzer S, Gruber S, Schmidthaler K, et al. Aspergillus fumigatus-specific immunoglobulin levels in BALF of CF patients. ERJ Open Res 2017; 3.

Diesner SC, Lukas J, Stifter E, Raimann A, Nachbaur E, Eiwegger T, Renner S, Geleff S, Emminger W, Szépfalusi Z.

Bilateral infiltrative dacryoadenitis and granulomatous pneumonia in an 11-year ancient boy: a case report. Klin Padiatr 2017; 229:96-9.

Diesner SC, Bergmayr C, Pfitzner B, Assmann V, Krishnamurthy D, Starkl P, Endesfelder D, Rothballer M, Welzl G, Rattei T, Eiwegger T, Szépfalusi Z, Fehrenbach H, Jensen-Jarolim E, Hartmann A, Pali-Schöll I, Untersmayr E, A distinct microbiota composition is associated with protection from food allergy in an oral mouse immunization model. Clin Immunol. 2016 Dec;173:10-18. doi: 10.1016.

Akdis M, Aab A, Altunbulakli C, Azkur K, Costa RA, Crameri R, Duan S, Eiwegger T, Eljaszewicz A, Ferstl R, Frei R, Garbani M, Globinska A, Hess L, Huitema C, Kubo T, Komlosi Z, Konieczna P, Kovacs N, Kucuksezer UC, Meyer N, Morita H, Olzhausen J, O’Mahony L, Pezer M, Prati M, Rebane A, Rhyner C, Rinaldi A, Sokolowska M, Stanic B, Sugita K, Treis A, van de Veen W, Wanke K, Wawrzyniak M, Wawrzyniak P, Wirz OF, Zakzuk JS, Akdis CA: Interleukins (from IL-1 to IL-38), interferons, transforming growth factor beta, and TNF-alpha: Receptors, functions, and roles in diseases.

J Allergy Clin Immunol 2016;138:984-1010

Broekman HCH, Eiwegger T, Upton J, Bogh KL. IgE – The Main Player of Food Allergy. Drug Discovery Today: Disease Models – October 2016. DOI: 10.1016/j.ddmod.2016.07.001.

Hansen CS, Hansen CS, Dufva M, Bøgh KL, Sullivan E, Patel J, Eiwegger T, Szépfalusi Z, Nielsen M, Christiansen A, Linear epitope mapping of peanut allergens demonstrates individualized and persistent antibody binding patterns, Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology  (2016), doi: 10.1016/ j.jaci.2016.06.019.

Ponce M, Diesner SC, Szepfalusi Z, Eiwegger T, Markers of tolerance development to food allergens.

2016 Oct;71(10):1393-404. doi: 10.1111/all.12953

Angelina A, Sirvent S, Palladino C, Vereda A, Cuesta-Herranz J, Eiwegger T, Rodriguez R, Breitendeder H, Villalba M, Palomares O. The Lipid-interaction capacity of Sin a 2 and Ara h 1, major mustard and peanut allegens of the cupin superfamily, endorses allergenicity. Allergy.

What is the medical definition of a food allergy

2016 Mar 17 doi 1111/all.12887 (epub ahead of print).

O’Mahony L, Akdis CA, Eiwegger T. Innate mechanisms can predict successful allergy immunotherapy. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2016 Feb, 137(2):559-61.

Christiansen A, Kringelum JV, Hansen CS, Bogh KL, Sullivan E, Patel J, Rigby NM, Eiwegger T, Szepfalusi Z, de Masi F, Nielsen M, Lund O, Dufva M. High-throughput sequencing enhanced phage display enables the identification of patient-specific epitope motifs in serum. Sci Rep 2015; 5: 12913.

Soyka MB, Holzmann D, Basinski TM, Wawrzyniak M, Bannert C, Bürgler S, Akkoc T, Treis A, Rückert B, Akdis M, Akdis CA, Eiwegger T.

The induction of IL-33 in the sinus epithelium and its influence on T-helper cell responses. PlosOne 2015; 10: e0123163.

Boyman O, Kaegi S, Akdis S, Bavbek S, Bossios A, Chatzipetrou A, Eiwegger T, Firinu D, Harr T, Knol E, Matucci A, Palomares O, Schmidt-Weber C, Simon HU, Steiner UC, Vultaggio A, Akdis CA and Spertini F. EAACI IG Biologicals task force paper on the use of biologic agents in allergic disorders. Allergy 2015; 70(7): 727-754.

Upton J, Eiwegger T. How Endless Should We Go. Int Arch Allergy Immunol. 2015;168(3):147-9: doi: 10.1159/000443764.

Epub 2016 Jan 21.

Ackerbauer D, Bublin M, Radauer C, Varga EM, Hafner C, Ebner C, Szépfalusi Z, Fröschl R, Hoffmann-Sommergruber K, Eiwegger T, Breiteneder H. Component-resolved IgE profiles in Austrian patients with suspected peanut allergy. Int Arch Allergy Immunol 2015;166:13-24.

Szepfalusi Z, Bannert C, Ronceray L, Mayer E, Hassler M, Wissmann E, Dehlink E, Gruber S, Graf A, Lupinek C, Valenta R, Eiwegger T, Urbanek R. Preventive sublingual immunotherapy in preschool children: first evidence for safety and pro-tolerogenic effects. Pediatr Allergy Immunol 2015; 25:788-795.

Martin-Fontecha M, Eiwegger T, Jartti T, Rueda-Zubiaurre A, Tiringer K, Stepanow J, Puhakka T, Ruckert B, Ortega-Gutierrez S, Lopez-Rodriguez ML, Akdis M, Akdis CA, Palomares O.

The expression of cannabinoid receptor 1 is significantly increased in atopic patients. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2014; 133: 926-929 e922.

Bublin M, Eiwegger T, Breiteneder H. Do lipids influence the allergic sensitization process? J Allergy Clin Immunol 2014.

Bogh KL, Nielsen H, Eiwegger T, Madsen CB, Mills EN, Rigby NM, Szepfalusi Z, Roggen EL. IgE versus IgG4 epitopes of the peanut allergen Ara h 1 in patients with severe allergy. Mol Immunol 2014; 58: 169-176.

Tiringer K, Treis A, Kanolzer S, Witt C, Chanim B, Gruber S, Schmidthaler K, Renner S, Dehlink E, Nachbaur E, Frischer T, Klepetko W, Akdis CA, Szepfalusi Z, Eiwegger T.

Differential expression of IL-33 and HMGB1 in the lungs of stable cystic fibrosis patients. Eur Respir J. 2014 Sep;44(3):802-5. doi:10.1183/09031936.00046614.

Tiringer K, Treis A, Fucik P, Gona M, Gruber S, Renner S, Dehlink E, Nachbaur E, Horak F, Jaksch P, Doring G, Crameri R, Jung A, Rochat MK, Hormann M, Spittler A, Klepetko W, Akdis CA, Szepfalusi Z, Frischer T, Eiwegger T. A Th17- and Th2-skewed cytokine profile in cystic fibrosis lungs represents a potential risk factor for pseudomonas aeruginosa infection. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2013;187:621-629.

Prelog M, Schonlaub J, Jeller V, Almanzar G, Hofner K, Gruber S, Eiwegger T, Wurzner R. Reduced varicella-zoster-virus (VZV)-specific lymphocytes and IgG antibody avidity in solid organ transplant recipients.

Vaccine 2013;31:2420-2426.

Diesner SC, Gruber S, Dehlink E, Muhlebner A, Eiwegger T, Szepfalusi Z. Somnolence upon allergen provocation in a kid with hen’s egg allergy. Klin Padiatr 2013.
24. Soyka MB, Wawrzyniak P, Eiwegger T, Holzmann D, Treis A, Wanke K, Kast JI, Akdis CA. Faulty epithelial barrier in chronic rhinosinusitis: The regulation of tight junctions by ifn-gamma and IL-4. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2012;130:1087-1096 e1010.

Soyka MB, Treis A, Eiwegger T, Menz G, Zhang S, Holzmann D, Akdis CA, Meyer N.

Regulation and expression of il-32 in chronic rhinosinusitis. Allergy 2012;67:790-798.

Meyer N, Christoph J, Makrinioti H, Indermitte P, Rhyner C, Soyka M, Eiwegger T, Chalubinski M, Wanke K, Fujita H, Wawrzyniak P, Burgler S, Zhang S, Akdis M, Menz G, Akdis C. Inhibition of angiogenesis by il-32: Possible role in asthma. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2012;129:964-973 e967.

Mayer E, Bannert C, Gruber S, Klunker S, Spittler A, Akdis CA, Szepfalusi Z, Eiwegger T. Cord blood derived cd4+ cd25(high) t cells become functional regulatory t cells upon antigen encounter. PLoS One 2012;7:e29355.

Gruber S, Eiwegger T, Nachbaur E, Tiringer K, Aigner C, Jaksch P, Keplinger M, Klepetko W, Lang G, Taghavi S, Graf A, Eichler I, Frischer T, Szepfalusi Z.

Lung transplantation in children and young adults: A 20-year single-centre experience. Eur Respir J 2012;40:462-469.

Eiwegger T, Gruber S, Szepfalusi Z, Akdis CA. Novel developments in the mechanisms of immune tolerance to allergens. Hum Vaccin Immunother 2012;8:1485-1491.

Bogh KL, Nielsen H, Madsen CB, Mills EN, Rigby N, Eiwegger T, Szepfalusi Z, Roggen EL. Ige epitopes of intact and digested ara h 1: A comparative study in humans and rats. Mol Immunol 2012;51:337-346.

In most cases, people with allergies develop mild to moderate symptoms, such as watery eyes, a runny nose or a rash. But sometimes, exposure to an allergen can cause a life-threatening allergic reaction known as anaphylaxis.

This severe reaction happens when an over-release of chemicals puts the person into shock. Allergies to food, insect stings, medications and latex are most frequently associated with anaphylaxis.

A second anaphylactic reaction, known as a biphasic reaction, can happen as endless as 12 hours after the initial reaction.

Call 911 and get to the nearest emergency facility at the first sign of anaphylaxis, even if you own already istered epinephrine, the drug used to treat severe allergic reactions. Just because an allergic person has never had an anaphylactic reaction in the past to an offending allergen, doesn’t mean that one won’t happen in the future.

If you own had an anaphylactic reaction in the past, you are at risk of future reactions.

Board Certifications

  1. American Board of Allergy and Immunology
  2. American Board of Pediatrics


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