What is sulfites allergy

It’s not completely known how sulfites cause reactions in certain people. Some people clearly make allergic antibodies against sulfites, while others do not. The gasses generated from sulfites might cause muscle spasms in the lungs of some asthmatics, or the reaction could be related to the inability of some people to metabolize the sulfites appropriately.


Principal reactions and applications

Thiosulfate anion characteristically reacts with dilute acids to produce sulfur, sulfur dioxide and water:[1]

S2O32−(aq) + 2H+(aq) → S(s) + SO2(g) + H2O(l)

This reaction has been employed to generate colloidal sulfur.

When the protonation is conducted at low temperatures, H2S2O3 (thiosulfuric acid) can be obtained. It is a strong acid pKa = 0.6, 1.7.

Photographic processing

The terminal sulfur atom in S2O32− binds to soft metals with high affinity. Thus it dissolves silver halides, e.g. AgBr, which is a component of photographic emulsions:

2 S2O32− + AgBr → [Ag(S2O3)2]3−) + Br

In this application to photographic processing, discovered by John Herschel and used for both film and paper processing, sodium thiosulfate is known as a photographic fixer.

Iodometry

In analytical chemistry, the most significant use becomes from the fact thiosulfate anion reacts stoichiometrically with iodine, reducing it to iodide as it is oxidized to tetrathionate:

2 S2O32−(aq) + I2(aq) → S4O62−(aq) + 2 I(aq)

Due to the quantitative nature of this reaction, as well as the fact that Na2S2O3•5H2O has an excellent shelf-life, it is used as a titrant in iodometry.

Na2S2O3•5H2O is also a component of iodine clock experiments.

This specific use can be set up to measure the oxygen content of water through a endless series of reactions. It is also used in estimating volumetrically, the concentrations of certain compounds in solution (hydrogen peroxide, for instance), and in estimating the chlorine content in commercial bleaching powder and water.

Gold extraction

Sodium thiosulfate is one component of an alternative lixiviant to cyanide for extraction of gold.[2] It forms a strong complicated with gold(I) ions, [Au(S2O3)2]3-.

What is sulfites allergy

The advantage of this approach is that thiosulfate is essentially non-toxic and that ore types that are refractory to gold cyanidation (e.g. carbonaceous or Carlin type ores) can be leached by thiosulfate. Some problems with this alternative process include the high consumption of thiosulfate, and the lack of a suitable recovery technique, since [Au(S2O3)2]3- does not adsorb to activated carbon, which is the standard technique used in gold cyanidation to separate the gold complicated from the ore slurry.


Industrial production and laboratory synthesis

On an industrial scale, sodium thiosulfate is produced mainly from liquid waste products of sodium sulfide or sulfur dye manufacture.[1]

Small scale synthesis is by boiling an aqueous solution of sodium sulfite with sulfur.

As such, the anion S2O32− represents a water-soluble form of elemental sulfur.


References

  • Sodium sulfite
  • Potassium bisulfite
  • ^ Aylmore, M. G.; Muir, D.

    What is sulfites allergy

    M. «Thiosulfate Leaching of Gold — a Review», Minerals Engineering, 2001, 14, 135-174

  • Potassium metabisulfite
  • Sodium bisulfite
  • Sodium metabisulfite
  • ^ a b Holleman, A. F.; Wiberg, E. «Inorganic Chemistry» Academic Press: San Diego, 2001. ISBN 0-12-352651-5
  • Sulfur dioxide

Categories: Thiosulfates | Sodium compounds | Photographic chemicals

In vino veritas, the Romans used to say-there`s truth in wine.

But as for what goes on wine bottles, maybe it`s just as well that winemakers don`t own to fill their labels with the whole truth. Wyoming clay.

Mineral oil. Sturgeons` guts.

What is sulfites allergy

Egg whites. Cows` blood. They`ve every been used, at times, in making wine.

Actually, every these strange additives-like sawdust and charcoal-are used to remove impurities from wine. They are themselves completely filtered out before the liquid ever reaches the bottle. Modern wine is an astonishingly pure foodstuff, refined and polished to a degree far beyond any standard for, tell, peanut butter or tomato sauce.

But that`s not to tell wine contains nothing that might be troublesome. Two chemicals are worth worrying about.

Wine labels don`t, for instance, mention urethane, a common contaminant. And until a few years ago, they didn`t list sulfites, preservatives that cause some people serious health problems.

Asthmatics beware

»The fact is, virtually 100 percent of every wines contain sulfites,»

says Cornelius Ough, who`s been studying winemaking at the University of California at Davis for almost 40 years.

Sulfites are added to wine before it`s bottled to prevent oxidation.

Too much oxygen turns white wine brown and damages the flavor, turning a delicate dry wine sickly sweet over time.

But even if sulfites aren`t added before bottling, numerous wines contain them naturally, because wine yeasts make a little sulfur dioxide during fermentation. Says Ough, »You can`t really make a excellent wine without sulfites.»

Unfortunately, about 5 percent of people with asthma, perhaps 500,000 Americans in every, are dangerously sensitive to sulfites.

»The problem isn`t as much with eating or drinking but rather breathing them,» says immunologist Ronald Simon of the Scripps Clinic and Research Foundation, one of the first doctors to sound the alarm about sulfites.

Exposed to air, dissolved sulfites give off sulfur dioxide gas. In highly sensitive people, a breath of sulfur dioxide from an open bottle or glass can immediate constricting spasms in muscles of the throat and windpipe. In extremely rare cases, people own died.

Sulfites and a sneezy nose

For most people, fortunately, it generally takes an overdosed wine to provoke a reaction. A large whiff is merely unpleasant, causing sneezing or coughing and a feeling of tightness in the throat.

These days, though, few wines are overdosed.

The government now requires winemakers to alert consumers when a bottle contains more than 10 parts of sulfites per million of wine, which is the lowest quantity common lab equipment can reliably detect. Because of that stipulation, almost every wines with a vintage date of 1988 or later carry a »sulfites» blurb.

For people who are sensitive, the new wines carrying a no-sulfite label offer the rare chance to lift a glass without worry-although, says immunologist Simon, anyone who`s had a severe reaction probably ought to avoid wine altogether.

People who are somewhat sensitive (those who own a reaction to some wines, but not all) should avoid Sauvignon blancs, blush wines, German wines and sweet wines, which generally own the highest sulfite levels.

Older wines are preferable, because the quantity of sulfur dioxide any wine gives off tends to decline as the bottle ages.

And then there`s urethane

Avoiding urethane poses a thornier problem. Unlike sulfites, urethane is never added to wine. It appears naturally during fermentation and not only in wine but in yogurt, soy sauce, bread, even some cheeses.

Urethane has endless been recognized to cause cancer in animals, but no one really knows whether urethane in alcoholic beverages poses a risk to humans.

Charles Mitchell, an attorney with the Middle for Science in the Public Interest and co-author of the 1987 report »Tainted Booze,» doesn`t ponder it`s wise to wait and discover out.

»Urethane causes numerous diverse forms of cancer in numerous diverse species,» he says. »I ponder there`s plenty of reason to be worried.»

Still, U.S. regulators haven`t set standards. »When it comes to the acceptable levels of urethane,» says Curtis Coker of the Food and Drug istration, »we don`t really know what we`re talking about.» Urethane, he explains, builds up as wine ages-the result of chemical reactions that take put in the bottle.

»Two bottles of the same wine may finish up with diverse urethane levels after a year, depending on storage and handling conditions,» he said.

»We can measure the quantity of urethane at bottling, but that won`t tell us much about the quantity in a glass you pour two or three years from now.»

Vintners police themselves

One thing is certain: Winemakers don`t desire to name another scary-sounding chemical on their labels. Over the past three years the American wine industry has been studying ways to reduce the urethane in wine.

And they are making progress, says Ough. »By using less nitrogen to fertilize, farmers can lower the quantity of urea in grapes. And certain yeasts seem to produce far less urethane than others. We know enough now to reliably reduce the quantity of urethane to 15 parts per billion.» Soy sauce has about 10 parts per billion, bread around 5.

People who really desire to frolic it safe should avoid fruit brandies, cream sherries, port wines, Japanese sakes and Chinese wines-products that tend to show high levels of urethane, according to Mitchell at the Middle for Science in the Public Interest.

Also, wines should be stored in a cool put, because even everyday warmth, says Coker, speeds urethane formation.

Don`t assume you can sidestep every concern by reaching for a wine bottle labeled »organic» or »made from organically grown grapes.» Those wines probably contain as much urethane as any other. And most own sulfites.

Choosing an organic wine may be more significant for the planet`s health. Organic wines are made from grapes grown without synthetic pesticides, herbicides or chemical fertilizers, but there`s no evidence that significant residues of these conventional vineyard chemicals finish up in the bottle, according to the FDA`s Coker.

In the finish, of course, the most dangerous ingredient in wine remains alcohol.

Moderation is always advised-don`t drink more than a third of a bottle, half a little carafe or two 4-ounce glasses a day. And lift a glass to ancient Samuel Johnson, who said, »Wine gives grand pleasure and every pleasure is of itself a good.»

Sulfites own been used for centuries, mainly as food additives to enhance flavor and preserve freshness. But these sulfur-based compounds also happen naturally in foods, such as fermented beverages and wines. They're also used as a preservative in a variety of medications to assist increase shelf life.

Examples of sulfites include:

  1. Potassium bisulfite
  2. Sodium bisulfite
  3. Sodium sulfite
  4. Potassium metabisulfite
  5. Sodium metabisulfite
  6. Sulfur dioxide

Exposure to sulfites can cause a host of adverse effects in sensitive people, ranging from mild to potentially life-threatening.

Here's how a sulfite allergy is diagnosed and how you can prevent a reaction if you've been diagnosed with this allergy.

Categories: Thiosulfates | Sodium compounds | Photographic chemicals

In vino veritas, the Romans used to say-there`s truth in wine.

But as for what goes on wine bottles, maybe it`s just as well that winemakers don`t own to fill their labels with the whole truth. Wyoming clay. Mineral oil.

What is sulfites allergy

Sturgeons` guts. Egg whites. Cows` blood. They`ve every been used, at times, in making wine.

Actually, every these strange additives-like sawdust and charcoal-are used to remove impurities from wine. They are themselves completely filtered out before the liquid ever reaches the bottle. Modern wine is an astonishingly pure foodstuff, refined and polished to a degree far beyond any standard for, tell, peanut butter or tomato sauce.

But that`s not to tell wine contains nothing that might be troublesome. Two chemicals are worth worrying about. Wine labels don`t, for instance, mention urethane, a common contaminant.

And until a few years ago, they didn`t list sulfites, preservatives that cause some people serious health problems.

Asthmatics beware

»The fact is, virtually 100 percent of every wines contain sulfites,»

says Cornelius Ough, who`s been studying winemaking at the University of California at Davis for almost 40 years.

Sulfites are added to wine before it`s bottled to prevent oxidation. Too much oxygen turns white wine brown and damages the flavor, turning a delicate dry wine sickly sweet over time.

But even if sulfites aren`t added before bottling, numerous wines contain them naturally, because wine yeasts make a little sulfur dioxide during fermentation.

Says Ough, »You can`t really make a excellent wine without sulfites.»

Unfortunately, about 5 percent of people with asthma, perhaps 500,000 Americans in every, are dangerously sensitive to sulfites.

»The problem isn`t as much with eating or drinking but rather breathing them,» says immunologist Ronald Simon of the Scripps Clinic and Research Foundation, one of the first doctors to sound the alarm about sulfites. Exposed to air, dissolved sulfites give off sulfur dioxide gas.

In highly sensitive people, a breath of sulfur dioxide from an open bottle or glass can immediate constricting spasms in muscles of the throat and windpipe. In extremely rare cases, people own died.

Sulfites and a sneezy nose

For most people, fortunately, it generally takes an overdosed wine to provoke a reaction. A large whiff is merely unpleasant, causing sneezing or coughing and a feeling of tightness in the throat.

These days, though, few wines are overdosed. The government now requires winemakers to alert consumers when a bottle contains more than 10 parts of sulfites per million of wine, which is the lowest quantity common lab equipment can reliably detect.

Because of that stipulation, almost every wines with a vintage date of 1988 or later carry a »sulfites» blurb.

For people who are sensitive, the new wines carrying a no-sulfite label offer the rare chance to lift a glass without worry-although, says immunologist Simon, anyone who`s had a severe reaction probably ought to avoid wine altogether.

People who are somewhat sensitive (those who own a reaction to some wines, but not all) should avoid Sauvignon blancs, blush wines, German wines and sweet wines, which generally own the highest sulfite levels. Older wines are preferable, because the quantity of sulfur dioxide any wine gives off tends to decline as the bottle ages.

And then there`s urethane

Avoiding urethane poses a thornier problem.

Unlike sulfites, urethane is never added to wine. It appears naturally during fermentation and not only in wine but in yogurt, soy sauce, bread, even some cheeses.

Urethane has endless been recognized to cause cancer in animals, but no one really knows whether urethane in alcoholic beverages poses a risk to humans. Charles Mitchell, an attorney with the Middle for Science in the Public Interest and co-author of the 1987 report »Tainted Booze,» doesn`t ponder it`s wise to wait and discover out.

»Urethane causes numerous diverse forms of cancer in numerous diverse species,» he says.

»I ponder there`s plenty of reason to be worried.»

Still, U.S. regulators haven`t set standards. »When it comes to the acceptable levels of urethane,» says Curtis Coker of the Food and Drug istration, »we don`t really know what we`re talking about.» Urethane, he explains, builds up as wine ages-the result of chemical reactions that take put in the bottle.

»Two bottles of the same wine may finish up with diverse urethane levels after a year, depending on storage and handling conditions,» he said. »We can measure the quantity of urethane at bottling, but that won`t tell us much about the quantity in a glass you pour two or three years from now.»

Vintners police themselves

One thing is certain: Winemakers don`t desire to name another scary-sounding chemical on their labels.

Over the past three years the American wine industry has been studying ways to reduce the urethane in wine.

And they are making progress, says Ough. »By using less nitrogen to fertilize, farmers can lower the quantity of urea in grapes. And certain yeasts seem to produce far less urethane than others. We know enough now to reliably reduce the quantity of urethane to 15 parts per billion.» Soy sauce has about 10 parts per billion, bread around 5.

People who really desire to frolic it safe should avoid fruit brandies, cream sherries, port wines, Japanese sakes and Chinese wines-products that tend to show high levels of urethane, according to Mitchell at the Middle for Science in the Public Interest.

Also, wines should be stored in a cool put, because even everyday warmth, says Coker, speeds urethane formation.

Don`t assume you can sidestep every concern by reaching for a wine bottle labeled »organic» or »made from organically grown grapes.» Those wines probably contain as much urethane as any other. And most own sulfites.

Choosing an organic wine may be more significant for the planet`s health. Organic wines are made from grapes grown without synthetic pesticides, herbicides or chemical fertilizers, but there`s no evidence that significant residues of these conventional vineyard chemicals finish up in the bottle, according to the FDA`s Coker.

In the finish, of course, the most dangerous ingredient in wine remains alcohol.

Moderation is always advised-don`t drink more than a third of a bottle, half a little carafe or two 4-ounce glasses a day. And lift a glass to ancient Samuel Johnson, who said, »Wine gives grand pleasure and every pleasure is of itself a good.»

Sulfites own been used for centuries, mainly as food additives to enhance flavor and preserve freshness. But these sulfur-based compounds also happen naturally in foods, such as fermented beverages and wines. They're also used as a preservative in a variety of medications to assist increase shelf life.

Examples of sulfites include:

  1. Potassium bisulfite
  2. Sodium bisulfite
  3. Sodium sulfite
  4. Potassium metabisulfite
  5. Sodium metabisulfite
  6. Sulfur dioxide

Exposure to sulfites can cause a host of adverse effects in sensitive people, ranging from mild to potentially life-threatening.

Here's how a sulfite allergy is diagnosed and how you can prevent a reaction if you've been diagnosed with this allergy.


Other uses

Sodium thiosulfate is also used:

  1. In Bleach
  2. As a component in hand warmers and other chemical heating pads that produce heat by exothermic crystallization of a supercooled solution.
  3. In pH testing of bleach substances. The universal indicator and any other liquid pH indicator are destroyed by bleach, rendering them useless for testing the pH. If one first adds sodium thiosulfate to such solutions, it will neutralize the color-removing effects of bleach and permit one to test the pH of bleach solutions with liquid indicators.

    The relevant reaction is akin to the iodine reaction: thiosulfate reduces the hypochlorite (active ingredient in bleach) and in so doing becomes oxidized to sulfate. The finish reaction is:

4 NaClO + Na2S2O3 + 2 NaOH → 4 NaCl + 2 Na2SO4 + H2O
  1. To protest the concept of reaction rate in chemistry classes. The thiosulfate ion can decompose into the sulfite ion and a colloidal suspension of sulfur, which is opaque.

    The equation for this acid-catalysed reaction is as follows:
    S2O32−(aq) → SO32−(aq) + S(s)

  2. In bacteriological water assessment.
  3. To remove iodine stains, e.g. after the explosion of nitrogen triiodide.
  4. To protest the concept of supercooling in physics classes. Melted sodium thiosulfate is extremely simple to overcool to room temperature and when crystallization is forced, the sudden temperature jump to 48.3°C can be experienced by touch.
  5. In the tanning of leather.
  6. Often used in pharmaceutical preparations as an anionic surfactant to aid in dispersion.
  7. To dechlorinate tap water for aquariums or treat effluent from waste water treatments prior to release into rivers.

    The reduction reaction is analogous to the iodine reduction reaction. Treatment of tap water requires between 0.1 grams and 0.3 grams of pentahydrated (crystalline) sodium thiosulfate per 10 liters of water.

  8. To lower chlorine levels in swimming pools and spas following super chlorination.

    What is sulfites allergy

  9. As an antidote to cyanide poisoning. Thiosulfate acts as a sulfur donor for the conversion for cyanide to thiocyanate (which can then be safely excreted in the urine), catalyzed by the enzyme rhodanase.
  10. As part of patina recipes for copper alloys.
  11. Treatment of calciphylaxis in hemodialysis patients with End-Stage Renal Disease


Sodium thiosulfate

Sodium thiosulfate (Na2S2O3) (sometimes spelled thiosulphate) is a colorless crystalline compound that is more familiar as the pentahydrate, Na2S2O3•5H2O, an efflorescent, monoclinic crystalline substance also called sodium hyposulfite or “hypo.”

The thiosulfate anion is tetrahedral in shape and is notionally derived by replacing one of the oxygen atoms by a sulfur atom in a sulfate anion.

The S-S distance indicates a single bond, implying that the sulfur bears significant negative charge and the S-O interactions own more double bond character. The first protonation of thiosulfate occurs at sulfur.


Overview

The excellent news is that sulfites generally don't cause problems in people without allergies and asthma, even when large amounts are consumed. However, in 3 to 10 percent of people with asthma, sulfites are known to increase asthma symptoms love wheezing, chest tightness, and coughing.

This generally occurs in adults with severe and/or poorly controlled disease. Numerous well-controlled studies show that some asthmatics can own severe asthma symptoms after eating sulfite-containing foods/beverages or inhaling sulfite fumes or vapors.

Less is known about developing hives/swelling and anaphylaxis as a result of sulfites, although various cases own been described in which consuming sulfite-containing foods/beverages led to severe allergic reactions.

What is sulfites allergy

Some of these people even had positive skin tests for sulfites, suggesting allergic antibodies to the preservative were present.

Other people own experienced severe reactions from sulfite-containing medications, including intravenous drugs and inhaled medications. These reactions included flushing, hives, and a drop in lung function as a result of taking the medications.

Sulfites don't appear to be a culprit in people suffering from repeated episodes of anaphylaxis of unknown cause.

They're also not a risk for anaphylaxis in people with mastocytosis, a rare disorder caused when an excessive number of mast (immune) cells collect together and appear to present little to no risk for people without asthma and without atopy, the genetic tendency to develop allergic diseases.


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What is sulfites allergy