What is hair dye allergy

  1. Glycerol monothioglycolate
  2. Glyceryl thioglycolate
  3. Acid permanent waves
  4. Glycerol monomercaptoacetate
  5. Hot permanent waves

Treatment of glyceryl monothioglycolate dermatitis

Management of glyceryl monothioglycolate dermatitis on the hands and fingers may be treated as for any acutedermatitis/eczema; this may include treatment with topical corticosteroids and emollients.

What are the reactions to glyceryl monothioglycolate allergy?

People working with glyceryl monothioglycolate such as hairdressers may develop allergic contact dermatitis on their hands and fingers; patch testing generally reveals hypersensitivity to the chemical.

Clients receiving perms whom are sensitive to glyceryl monothioglycolate may also suffer contact dermatitis on the neck, scalp and ears.

Often exposure is much less intense and frequent than in hairdressers, hence the allergy is less commonly found in clients. However, the chemical can remain athletic in hair shafts for months thus causing long-lasting dermatitis.

Company Details

About the Company

Year of Establishment1985

Legal Status of FirmPrivate Limited Company

Nature of BusinessManufacturer

Number of Employees101 to 500 People

Annual TurnoverRs. 10 — 25 Crore

IndiaMART Member SinceNov 2003

Backed by around two and half decades of industry experience, we own gained due recognition in the national and international markets as providers of surgical dressing products, medical dressing products, adhesive dressing products, elastic bandages and medical disposables.

Catering to the emerging needs of the health care industry, the product range offered by us include medical aids, emergency medical aids, home medical aids, surgical tape, microporous surgical tape, nuvlon swabs, surgical pad, gauze dressing, chlorhexidine gauze dressing, first aid kits and plaster of paris bandage B.P.Elastic Adhesive Bandage B.P,Cotton Crepe Bandage B.P.

Further, we also offer cohesive bandage, skin traction kit, knee cap and wrist brace and medicated plasters. The products offered by us also feature Medical Device Directive (CE marking) from Det Norske Varitas of OsloNorway. These also come with GMP & free sales certificate that helps us to successfully expand our product’s reach in the national and international markets.

Our modern ISO 9001 certified production unit fitted with technically advanced range of machines imported from Italy and U.S.A. also helps to successfully handle the emerging market demands of import substitute products.

Further, our process expertise also allows us to manufacture the offered product range as per the specific requirements of our customers. Some of the countries we are presently exporting to include England, Scotland, Belgium, Greece, Singapore, Mauritius, Malaysia, Sri Lanka, Jordan, Uganda, Muscat, Saudi Arabia, Latin America, West Indies and African regions

What is glyceryl monothioglycolate and where is it found?

Glyceryl monothioglycolate is a chemical substance that is used in permanent wave (perming) solutions. The use of glyceryl monothioglycolate in perming solutions was developed in the 1970s.

Known as an acid perm, glyceryl monothioglycolate works by breaking the disulfide links between the polypeptide bonds in the keratin (the protein structure) in the hair wrapped in rods. Heat is applied via a hairdryer and this activates the perm process causing the bonds to reform in the shape of a curl.

Glyceryl monthioglycolate contains no ammonia, hence this type of perm is not associated with the smell that alkaline perms own. In addition, acid perms are gentler to the hair, hence more suitable for delicate or thinner hair.

Further information

Formula: C5-H10-O4-S

CAS number: 30618-84-9

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Poisoning due to hair dye consumption is relatively rare in India. Compound responsible for hair dye toxicity is paraphenylenediamine (PPD). Hair dye (PPD) poisoning has high morbidity and mortality and its incidence has increased dramatically in the past 4 years.

Immediate recognition and effective management lead to finish recovery. Diagnosis is made solely on the basis of the history given by the attendants and symptoms of cervicofacial edema, black colored urine and muscular pain. The key to successful management is detection and avoidance of triggers, early recognition of attacks, and aggressive airway management when warranted. Initial treatment in a patient presenting with most forms of angioedema includes antihistamines and glucocorticoids if required.

Epinephrine should be istered if there is a concern for laryngeal edema.

We present here a case report of hair dye poisoning where patient presented as cervicofacial edema not responding to conventional treatment, but responded to metyhlprednisolone intravenously.

Key words: Angiooedema; Hair dye poisoning; Paraphenylenediamine; PPD; Methylprednisolone

Citation: Ahlawat G, Garg N, Kirti, Taxak S, Hooda S.

Methylprednisolone in hair dye poisoning. Anaesth Pain & Intensive Care 2014;18(1):49-51

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Henkel Ltd.,
Hemel Hempstead,
HP2 4RQ.

Mechanism of Hair Dying and Their Safety Aspects: A Review
Jayaganesh Sankar, Sudhir Sawarkar, Jainendra Malakar, Bachan Singh Rawat and Mohammed Asif Ali

An original hair color change by application of chemical dye is a common practice among the men and women.

Hair dyes are classified into the following category based on their color retention property, namely temporary, semi-permanent and demi-permanent and permanent. Temporary dyes are otherwise called as non-oxidative dyes, because coloring process was carried out without any oxidizing agent, it reduced stay time on the fiber, removing the hair during the first shampoo wash. Semi-permanent products consist of nitro aromatic amines or aromatic amino nitroanthroquinone dyes, which diffuse into the hair and bind to the hair, however do not attach firmly. Permanent hair dyes are called oxidation hair dyes, because of the oxidizing agent used for the color development.

An athletic intermediate reacts further with coupler and provides the color to the hair and in general oxidation hair dyes provides shampoo resistant hair dyes. Some hair dyes can cause allergic reactions or sensitization that may result in skin irritation and hair loss. People can develop sensitivities with repeated exposure. Also, formulations may change over time. The primary toxicological concerns of hair dyes, primarily oxidation hair dyes, are with contact dermatitis and long-term «potential» systemic effects. The paradiamine oxidation derivative dyes reported to having more sensitizing potential when compared to other amine derivatives. P-Phenylenediamine is the major component of oxidation hair dyes and oxidation dyes are the most widely used of every hair dyes.

Therefore PPD is the sensitizer of prime concern.

PDFFulltextXMLReferencesCitationReport Citation
How to cite this article:

Jayaganesh Sankar, Sudhir Sawarkar, Jainendra Malakar, Bachan Singh Rawat and Mohammed Asif Ali, 2017. Mechanism of Hair Dying and Their Safety Aspects: A Review. Asian Journal of Applied Sciences, 10: 190-196.



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Geeta Ahlawat, MD*, Nidhi Garg, MD**, Kirti, MD*, Sushila Taxak, MD***, Sarla Hooda, DA, MD****

*Associate Professor, ***Professor; ****Senior Professor & HoD

Department of Anaesthesiology and Critical Care, Pt.

B. D. Sharma PGIMS, Rohtak, Haryana-124001 (India)

**Associate Professor, Every India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi (India)

Correspondence: Dr. Nidhi Garg, FTA 106, Ayurvigyan Nagar, New Delhi (India); E-mail: [email protected]


Compound responsible for hair dye toxicity is PPD. PPD imparts black colour to hair dye. It is also used in tattoos and (black) henna. PPD is used because it is cheap, has high temperature stability, high strength, chemical and electrical resistance. Poisoning due to PPD is reported in northern Africa and Arabia due to local custom of using henna (black).

What is hair dye allergy

A few cases are reported from north India. This poison can be Poisoning can be accidental, suicidal or homicidal. It is also used as abortificient. Sssj;kjn cj up jtoxicity occurs in two phase

Systemic toxicity occurs in two phases. Phase 1 is an acute presentation with edema of the neck, airway obstruction, gastritis and severe vomiting while phase 2 is a subacute presentation with acute renal failure, rhabdomyolysis and hemolysis.

PPD applied locally can cause contact dermatitis. Transcutaneous absorption of PPD can be rapid and may lead to systemic effects including angioedema, gastro-intestinal disturbances, tremors, drowsiness, convulsions, dyspnea, liver atrophy, acute renal failure, cardiac arrest and death in few cases.

However, systemic effects develop following chronic topical application. Chronic dermal exposure can cause lethargy, myalgia, purplish discoloration of gums and teeth, anorexia, GIT disturbances, liver and spleen enlargement, subacute atrophy of the liver, jaundice, CRF, progressive neurological symptoms and coma.

Poisoning due to PPD has high mortality. Therefore, early recognition can be life saving.

What is hair dye allergy

There is no specific antidote. The most significant aspect of management is early recognition of poisoning by this compound, supportive measures that include g managmentg g     astric lavage with 2% soda bicarbonate and alkalinization of urine. Asphyxia is the major early challenge, which may require ventilatory support. Drugs used include hydrocortisone, antihistaminics and vasopressors. Renal support in the form of dialysis is required in ARF. Supportive management is life saving if instituted early in course as little delay is disastrous leading to death. Diagnosis is simple to make but requires a higher degree of suspicion as clinical features are fairly distinctive that is, orofacial edema, chocolate brown urine and history of PPD intake.

Till now, no definite guideline of management has been given, despite exhaustive literature search. As a result, we formulated our own line of management. After a quick clinical examination, special attention was given to vital parameters. As the immediate cause of death was hypoxia, airway patency was maintained by oral airway, endotracheal intubation and emergency tracheostomy.

What is hair dye allergy

Circulatory volume and pressure were maintained by giving appropriate fluid therapy. The treatment was based on the following principles:

1. Since no antidote is available against PPD, management was basically supportive.

2. Gastric lavage was done with activated charcoal and tap water.

3. Cases where angioedema progresses rapidly should be treated as a medical emergency as airway obstruction and suffocation can happen. In severe cases, stridor of the airway occurs, with gasping or wheezy inspiratory breath sounds and decreasing oxygen levels. Tracheal intubation is required in these situations to prevent respiratory arrest and risk of death.

Asphyxiation due to laryngeal edema yields a 3-40% mortality rate. Airway swelling can make intubation difficult; the risk is increased for vocal cord damage during intubation. Of angioedema presented in the emergency room, 10-25% of cases are considered to be life threatening.

4. Intravenous hydrocortisone (300 mg stat dose then 100 mg every 6 h) is used till angioneurotic edema subsides. This is the mainstay of treatment for angioneurotic edema which decreases mortality and morbidity later on.

But this case did not reply to intravenous hydrocortisone rather responded to methylprednisolone 125 mg 6 hourly as IV infusion for 5 days. It has shown promising results and leading to decreased morbidity and mortality as evidenced by early subsidence of angioneurotic edema.

5. Sodium bicarbonate 20 meq 8 hourly was istered to prevent myoglobin precipitation in kidney along with loop diuretics (furosemide or torsemide) to maintain adequate urine volume.

6. Cholorpheniramine maleate (25-50 mg IV every 8 h) was used till orofacial edema subsided (average 3-5 days).


Vasopressors (dopamine and/or dobutamine) were used till hypotension persisted, despite adequate fluid therapy.

Time elapsed in seeking medical care and early management influence the mortality and morbidity.

What is hair dye allergy

Early clinical diagnosis and early intervention are the cornerstones of management. Respiratory failure mainly sure the short term prognosis, whereas endless term prognosis was affected by the importance of muscular and renal damage. Excellent results with methylprednisolone in marked cervicofacial edema were seen. It reduced edema markedly and improved associated respiratory distress. Preventing renal failure was a extremely significant goal in systemic PPD intoxication, since its occurrence was associated with high mortality and an increase in ICU stay.

Prevention was based on abundant fluid infusion, alkalinization of urine and the correction of the hemodynamic disturbances. Cases who consumed up to 10 gm of PPD generally survived if they are presented to hospital within 4 hours of dye ingestion in whom proper management can be delivered in the form of methyl prednisolone and other supportive measures. Severe edema of face, neck and floor of mouth, renal failure and myocarditis are poor prognostic factors.

It is significant that medical fraternity should be aware of this poison because the poison is available fairly freely and used extensively.

Minimum Age Advisory

16 Years


An 18 years ancient female weighing 50 kg with the history of hair dye ingestion presented to casualty department with complaints of respiratory distress and agitated behaviour.

General physical examination revealed a pulse rate of 130/min, BP 100/50 mmHg and bilateral conducting sounds on chest auscultation. Gastric lavage was done. Within ½ an hour, patient developed facial and periorbital edema with stridor. Patient was intubated immediately using 6.5 mm cuffed endotracheal tube (Figure 1). At that time her physical examination revealed a pulse rate of 146/min and BP 70/36 mmHg. Diagnosis of angioedema with anaphylactic shock was made.

She was given inj. chlorpheniramine 50 mg, inj. hydrocortisone 300 mg, inj. dexamethasone 8 mg and inj. adrenaline 1 mg subcutaneously stat and inj. dopamine infusion was started at 6 µg/kg/min. The patient was immediately shifted to RICU and put on ventilatory support with SIMV mode, tidal volume 380 ml/min, frequency 12/min, FiO2 60%.

Figure 1: Patient on arrival with gross facial, periorbital edema

Standard monitoring for electrocardiography, heart rate, oxygen saturation and non-invasive blood pressure was applied. Nebulization, using 0.25 ml 1:100 adrenaline added to 2 ml isotonic saline, was done 6 hourly.

Volume resuscitation was done using colloid and crystalloid solutions. She was catheterized and forced dieresis was done. Under aseptic precautions, a triple lumen central line was inserted in correct subclavian vein and CVP guided fluid given. She was put on inj. hydrocortisone 100 mg 8 hourly, inj. metrogyl 100 ml 8 hourly, inj. ranitidine 12 hourly, inj. furosemide 20 mg 12 hourly, inj. chlorpheniramine 50 mg 8 hourly and inj. sodium bicarbonate 20 meq 8 hourly. Slowly inj.

dopamine infusion was tapered off and inj.

What is hair dye allergy

dobutamine infusion was started at 5 µg/kg/min. Even after 18 hours of treatment, her facial, periorbital edema did not resolve, so she was put on inj. methylprednisolone 125 mg IV 6 hourly and nebulisation was done every four hours. She responded to treatment, so dobutamine support was tapered off gradually and stopped. Edema of her facial, periorbital and neck soft tissues reduced. After 36 hours patient started responding to verbal commands, maintaining her vital signs at HR- 106/min and BP 104/60 mmHg.

Her chest remained clear bilaterally. She was extubated on 3rd day and monitored for next 12 hours. She did not develop any further complications. Her urine output was adequate. Urine color was initially dark chocolate colored, and it became clear by the finish of 3rd day. She was shifted back to the ward on 4th day.

Safety Warnings

Hair colorants can cause severe allergic reactions.
Read and follow instructions. This product is not intended for use on persons under the age of 16.

Temporary «black henna» tattoos may increase your risk of allergy.
Do not colour your hair if:
— you own a rash on your face or sensitive, irritated and damaged scalp,
— you own ever experienced any reaction after colouring your hair,
— you own experienced a reaction to a temporary «black henna» tattoo in the past.
Do not use to dye eyelashes or eyebrows. See bottom of pack for full list of ingredients.
Keep out of reach of children.

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For further information and free colour advice please call the Schwarzkopf Advisory Service on Freephone:
GB: 0800 328 9214
IRL: 1800 535 634
[email protected]
Henkel Ltd.,
Hemel Hempstead,
HP2 4RQ.

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Number of Units — 1


Hair dye is available in several forms and the commonest cheap form is rock hair dye which is available in 20 gm pack.

Other branded hair dyes love ‘Godrej’, Kesh kala, colour mate etc. are available in powder or liquid forms. The concentration of athletic substance para phenyldiamine, varies from 70 to 90% in rock hair dye and 2 to 10% in branded dyes, which are used for coloring the grey hair black. The rock hair dye is extremely cheap and freely available, making it an attractive option for suicidal intent. It is brownish to black colored solid which is partially soluble in water and easily soluble in hydrogen peroxide. PPD is a excellent hydrogen donor and is metabolized by electron oxidation to an athletic radical by cytochrome P450 peroxidase to form a reactive benzoquinone diamine.

What is hair dye allergy

This is further oxidized to a trimer known as Brandowaski’s base, a compound reported to cause anaphylaxis as well as being strongly mutagenic.

Oral ingestion of PPD causes mainly two types of toxic effects; the first manifestation is angioneurotic edema presenting as rapid development of severe edema of the face, neck, pharynx, tongue and larynx with respiratory distress sometimes requiring emergency tracheostomy. The time of onset of symptoms after ingestion was about 4 to 6 h and at the time of admission, majority of the patients are presented with acute angioneurotic edema of the head and neck and wooden hard swollen protruded tongue with swelling of pharynx and larynx, and these are typical diagnostic feature of acute hair dye poisoning.

Initial insult is due to local irritation of the mucous membrane and the skin, causing intense edema. Edema of the eyes may be extremely severe and may cause exophthalmos. Muscle pain was the next most common presentation of hair dye poisoning following angioneurotic edema. Limbs are generally swollen, tender and stiff. Muscle pain typically occurs about 10 to 12 h after ingestion of hair dye.

Acute hair dye poisoning leads to rhabdomyolysis and muscle necrosis.

Patients pass chocolate brown colour urine which along with typical orofacial swelling is diagnostic of acute hair dye poisoning specially in those cases where history of dye ingestion is lacking. This chocolate brown colour of urine is due to the presence of myoglobin and hemoglobinuria. In the later phase, rhabdomyolysis and acute tubular necrosis supervene. The myoglobin is released because of rhabdomyolysis and muscle necrosis which reach the renal tubules and clog them, leading to pathologic features of acute tubular necrosis responsible for oliguria and acute renal failure.

Acute renal failure was seen as the tardy cause of death in acute hair dye poisoning cases. Tubular obstruction by myoglobin casts is regarded as the principal mechanism for producing ARF.

There is no antidote for PPD poisoning. If the poisoning is not recognized early, it has a extremely high mortality. We report a patient who suffered from hair dye poisoning. She presented with cervicofacial and lingual edema and recovered within a week.

Preparation and Usage

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Schwarzkopf Selection Guide
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2 Lasts up to 28 washes
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For endless or thick hair we recommend using two packs.


  • Dilip Gude, Dharam Pal Bansal, Rahul Ambegaonkar, and Jayaram Prajapati.

    Paraphenylenediamine: Blackening more than just hair. J Res Med Sci. Jun 2012;17(6):584–586. [Free Full Text]

  • Jain PK, Aggarwal N, Sharma AK, Akhtar A. Prospective study of  ingestional hair dye poisoning in Northern India (Prohina). J clinical medicine and research 2011;3:9-19.Paraphenylenediamine: Blackening more than just hair
  • Sood AK, Yadav SP, Sood S, Malhotra RC. Hair dye Poisoning. J Assoc Physicians Ind 1996;44(1): 69. [PubMed]
  • Frigas E, Park MA. Acute urticaria and angioedema: diagnostic and treatment considerations. Am J Clin Dermatol 2009;10(4):239-50.


What should I do to avoid dermatitis due to glyceryl monothioglycolate allergy?

In cases of occupational exposure, the only way to prevent contact dermatitis is to avoid contact with glyceryl monothioglycolate.

What is hair dye allergy

Unfortunately wearing gloves provides little or no protection as patch tests through vinyl gloves showed positive results in glyceryl monothioglycolate sensitised hairdressers.

Your dermatologist may own further specific advice, particularly if you are highly sensitive to glyceryl monothioglycolate.

Am I allergic to glyceryl monothioglycolate?

Skin patch testing is used to determine glyceryl monothioglycolate sensitisation.

Often hairdressers are also sensitive to other chemicals used in hair cosmetics such as paraphenylenediamine (PPD) that is widely used in hair dyes.