What is cultivated wheat allergy

There are no historical data, but various oat species were probably brought to the Americas shortly after their discovery by the Spanish, who brought oats to feed their horses. Thus, oats are a comparatively ancient crop in South America, and Avena byzantina was probably the first introduced in the south of the continent, in Argentina and Uruguay; its area increased at the beginning of the twentieth century, especially in Argentina and Uruguay, where it was used for fodder and for quality grain production (Boerger, 1943: 1043).

The genus Avena is a polyploid series with diploid, tetraploid and hexaploid species, some of which are cultivated, while others are invaders of cultivated fields.

In Latin America, every the species were probably introduced from Europe, especially the diploids (A. strigosa) and the hexaploids (A.

What is cultivated wheat allergy

sativa and A. byzantina), which are cultivated and are extremely significant economically. A. byzantina and A. sativa own been widely intercrossed, and it is hard to distinguish them in the current varieties, so, in this study, white oats are called A.

What is cultivated wheat allergy

sativa. A. sterilis is a weed in Argentina and Uruguay. Although oats are best adapted to the temperate environments of the South American continent, they are widely adapted to low latitudes and tropical and subtropical environments.

Oats are significant in Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Ecuador, Peru and Uruguay (Table 4.1). In most countries, oats are more significant as fodder for livestock in the field. In Brazil, Argentina and Chile, oats are extremely significant as grain for the transforming industry.

These countries grow the largest areas (Table 4.1). The harvested area is fairly little in the Andean region, as most of the area sown is used as fodder. Data for Uruguay are the same for the final five years, implying that they are probably out of date.

TABLE 4.1
Mean values (± standard errors) for five years (1998-2002) of oat harvested area, grain yield and entire oat yield in the main producing countries in South America

Country

Harvested area (‘000 ha)

Grain yield (kg ha-1)

Production (‘000 t)

Argentina

327.5 ± 45

1742 ± 114

574.0 ±101

Bolivia

4.9 ± 0.46

930 ± 7.8

4.6 ± 0.07

Brazil

221.6 ± 28

1217 ± 196

274.0 ± 74

Chile

85.2 ± 6.8

3396 ± 699

292.0 ± 77

Ecuador

1.1 ± 0.19

726 ± 40.8

0.82 ± 0.16

Peru

63.6 ± 29.9

134 ± 35

8.4 ± 3.9

Uruguay

45.0

1000

45.0

Source: FAOSTAT (www.fao.org — as of 20 February 2003).

Recent studies (Rebuffo, 1997) report that the area under oats in Uruguay was 65 000 ha in 1989, but then declined to approximately 36 000 ha between 1991 and 1995.

Grain yields are much higher in Chile, where conditions are more favourable for oats, than in Argentina, Brazil and Uruguay. Yield differences reflect the conditions of each environment, but nevertheless yields in Argentina and Brazil are increasing compared with other countries. In South America, only Chile has been a frequent oat exporter; Argentina was a large exporter of excellent quality oats, but recently lost much of its market.

Brazil was an importer until the finish of the 1980s and now produces the oats it needs, but imports in years of poor harvest. Statistical data on crops such as oats, that in the past were less significant, own to be viewed with caution, bearing in mind the grand difficulty in data collection in the countries of the region.

Oats are grown in subtropical environments at the time of year when temperatures are at their lowest. White oats are grown on approximately 200 000 ha. Black oats (A. strigosa), a diploid species, is grown on more than 3 million hectares for soil cover or forage (Figure 4.1).

Figure 4.1
Maize growing through a bed of dessicated black oats (Avena strigosa) straw in southern Brazil

Oats, because of their multiple uses, are a technically and economically viable alternative crop in numerous production systems in the region.

The inclusion of oats in a rotation improves the physical, chemical and biological properties of the soil, reduces diseases and pests in other crops and provides biomass to maintain soil cover for a endless time, with grand reduction in weeds and soil erosion.

The main area under oats is as a cover crop to protect the soil before spring and summer crops. Black oat is mostly used. In general, no P or K fertilizer is needed and only N is added as a top dressing. White oats are grown when the finish use of oats is grain (Figure 4.2), but when the finish use is fodder, black oats are sown.

Figure 4.2
A field of white oats (Avena sativa) for grain production in Brazil

Where two crops a year (one in winter and another in the summer) can be grown, oats are becoming an significant option for grain because they are used in no-till systems in rotation with wheat and barley before the soybean crop (Figure 4.3).

Because of the large quantity of biomass in the oat plant, farmers use less herbicide on soybeans (Figure 4.4) if they are preceded by oats, compared with wheat and barley.

The crop succession system in most of the region involves two crops per year (winter and summer). In South Brazil, little grains (winter crops: oats, wheat and barley) are sown from April to June (according to the finish use and altitude) and harvested from October to November.

When grown as a cover crop, A. strigosa is desiccated in August, at the beginning of flowering. Summer crops are predominantly maize and soybean, sown from September to November. Maize is generally sown in September-October after A. strigosa desiccation, and harvested in April-May. Soybean is sown after the winter cereal harvest, generally in October- November. Some other crops are used, such as black beans and popcorn. Maize, sown early, can be harvested in February- March. In these cases a cover crop can be grown for two to three months, before sowing the winter crop.

D.G.

What is cultivated wheat allergy

COOPLANTO
Figure 4.3
A no-till system in which soybean is planted after oats own been harvested

Figure 4.4
Soybean growing in a field previously planted with oats in a no-till system

The production system on little farms involves diverse crops. In tobacco production areas (spring and summer), A. strigosa is used as a cover crop, or as fodder in winter. In fruit producing areas, oats are sown between the lines as a winter cover crop. This permits nitrogen retention and better weed control, decreasing the use of chemicals.

In South Brazil, white oats are sown from the finish of May to the beginning of July; they are commonly fertilized with phosphorus, potassium and nitrogen for grain production where soils are deficient in these nutrients.

Generally, N is applied at sowing (20 percent) and at the beginning of tillering (80 percent).

Disease control is usual, and one or two fungicide applications are necessary to reduce leaf rust (the main disease) and Pyrenophora avenae (common in no-till systems). Barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV), Pseudomonas syringae and Ustilagoavenae also occur.

Insects damage oats, especially aphids and caterpillars. Among the aphids, Schizaphis graminum can transmit BYDV and others, such as Metopolophium dirhodum and Sitobion avenae, can happen until shut to maturity.

Harvest is in October and is frequently damaged by high rainfall and humidity, which delay harvesting and cause losses from lodging and quality reduction (low test weight and increase in grains spotted by fungus).

Oats are used as a high quality grain in human and animal nutrition.

A considerable part of the area sown is for autumnwinter grazing and also for hay and silage. As a forage producer, in pure stands or mixtures, oats are the most significant crop in the Southern part of South America, because of the high quantity and quality of forage produced in this environment. Also, oats can be used for silage and hay in winter. Oats are used as forage for dairy or beef cattle, and on sheep farms used for grazing or making silage to be fed in combination with soybean meal or maize in winter, when native forages grow slowly. Oats can assist stabilize the supply of meat and milk, with lower costs than maize silage or concentrate.

What is cultivated wheat allergy

Oat grain is harvested in October-November, which is the off-season for maize or soybean (harvested from February to April).

Black oats are grazed in winter under two production systems. In one, common in South Brazil, oats are sown direct into native pasture in autumn (April-May), when the growth of the original pasture is extremely slow. Fodder is obtained for 3-4 months, until the finish of winter and beginning of spring and the re-growth of the native pasture.

In the second system, oats are sown in association with ryegrass and clover, forming a typical winter pasture. Sowing is in April-May and the mixture lasts until October-November (end of spring). In both cases, finish soil fertilization is needed.

The use of black oats for grazing and in rotation with other grain crops reflects the need to increase the income of farmers and reduce production costs. It is estimated that, for Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil, in 2000, about 1 250 000 ha of black oats were grown for fodder (for dairy and beef cattle, and sheep) (Floss, 2001).

The system used on little farms involves growing A.

strigosa on little areas and, instead of grazing, the plants are cut (manually or by machine) and used as green fodder.

Fodder oats are sown in autumn (April-May) and are mainly used in June and July. The seed rate is 80 kg ha-1 (250 seeds m-2) using no-till machines. In some cases, oats can be sown direct into the native sward without soil preparation. In other cases, oats are sown direct into soybean or maize residues, also without soil cultivation.


Research

Chile

The single oat breeder in Chile is near retirement, and new staff are needed, in view of the national importance of the oat crop.

Brazil

Most oat research is devoted to grain production, and is carried out by various institutions and involves activities ranging from biotechnology to the development of new cultivars and agronomic practices suited to the various oat-growing environments.

More than 100 papers are presented every year at the Brazilian Oat Meeting, and several graduate programme dissertations own been presented that focus on the oat crop. In Brazil, oat research at Universities allows training in formal graduate studies or through short courses or visits.

As far as A. strigosa is concerned there is no true breeding programme in Brazil, and there is a need to start effective breeding in order to obtain better cultivars. The current variety of black oat, used extensively as a forage and cover crop, is extremely susceptible to crown rust and has been mixed with several other black oat varieties.

There is also a need for a better extension programme, since most agronomists working with farmers and cooperatives know little about the crop. In Brazil, grain and animal production are carried out in diverse regions, and only recently own grain producers begun to integrate on-farm grain production with livestock production. Oats might increase in importance for forage in the grain growing area.

Argentina

Oat research has almost disappeared in Argentina. The extremely few programmes that were in put did not handle the stem rust epidemic properly at the beginning of the 1980s and no cultivars with excellent resistance were developed.

Only the programme at Barrow is now developing new oat cultivars with resistance to stem rust. Argentina urgently needs to add well-trained young researchers, especially in breeding for forage and grain, and in plant pathology.

Regional cooperation

Oat researchers in Argentina, Brazil, Chile and Uruguay are linked through the QION, and also through meetings and frequent visits, so information and breeding material flow freely in the region.

For the Andean region, a link is needed between the researchers working there and other breeders in South America, so that they can share experiences and breeding material.


In fact, FODMAPs seem more likely than gluten to cause widespread intestinal distress, since bacteria regularly ferment carbohydrates but ferment protein less frequently. Although a FODMAP-free diet is complicated, it permits people to eliminate individual foods temporarily and then reintroduce them systematically to determine which, if any, are responsible for their stomach problems.

What is cultivated wheat allergy

FODMAPs are not as trendy as gluten and not as simple to understand. But, biologically, their role makes more sense, Murray says.

“That first paper, in 2011, blew our minds,” Murray told me. “Essentially, it said that people are intolerant of gluten, and it was based on a well-designed, double-blind study. When people were challenged with gluten, by eating the muffins, they got ill. We just couldn’t figure it out.

But then came the second study. By then, it was almost too tardy to put the genie back in the bottle. You own millions of people out there completely convinced that they feel better when they don’t eat gluten—and they don’t desire to hear anything different.”

The FODMAP research, while influential and highly regarded, involved fewer than a hundred people, not enough to account definitively for the number of people who own abandoned foods that contain gluten.

Several groups are trying to repeat those results. But studies love that take time. At present, there are no blood tests, biopsies, genetic markers, or antibodies that can confirm a diagnosis of non-celiac gluten sensitivity. There own been a few studies suggesting that people without celiac disease own a reason to eliminate gluten from their diet. But most of the data are unclear or preliminary. Doctors rarely diagnose non-celiac gluten sensitivity, and numerous don’t believe that it exists. Few people seem to own been deterred by the lack of evidence. “Everyone is trying to figure out what is going on, but nobody in medicine, at least not in my field, thinks this adds up to anything love the number of people who tell they feel better when they take gluten out of their diet,” Murray said.

“It’s hard to put a number on these things, but I would own to tell that at least seventy per cent of it is hype and desire. There is just nothing obviously related to gluten that is incorrect with most of these people.’’

About a month ago, in an attempt to gain a better understanding of the role that gluten plays in our diet, I flew to Seattle, then drove north for an hour, to Mount Vernon, where Washington State University’s Bread Lab is situated. The lab is part of the university’s wheat-breeding program; by studying the diversity of the grains grown in the Pacific Northwest, researchers there hope to determine which are most suitable for baking, brewing, and making pasta.

Dan Barber, a chef and the co-owner of the Blue Hill restaurants, in Manhattan and in Pocantico Hills, had suggested that I visit Stephen Jones, a molecular cytogeneticist and the lab’s director. Barber, in his recent book “The Third Plate,” describes Jones as a savior of traditional wheat in a world that has transformed most crops into bland industrial commodities. I was more eager to hear what he had to tell about the implications of adding additional gluten to bread dough, which has become routine in industrial bakeries.

Jones, a strapping man with an aw-shucks manner, has spent the past twenty-five years trying to figure out the best way to make a loaf of bread.

The quantity of gluten added to industrially made bread keeps increasing, and Jones has become acutely interested in whether that additional gluten may be at least partly responsible for the gastrointestinal distress reported by so numerous people. “My Ph.D. was on the genetics of loaf volume—looking at chromosomes and relating them to the strength of the dough in bread,’’ Jones said, as he greeted me at the entrance to the research middle. The inviting, if somewhat incongruous, aroma of freshly baked bread filled the building. Jones’s lab is unique; few bakeries own Brabender farinographs, which Jones and his team use in their search for the ideal ratio of gluten to water in dough, and to measure the strength of flour.

Nor can there be numerous labs with a Matador deck baking oven, which can accommodate more than a dozen loaves at a time, and which circulates heat uniformly, at boiling enough temperatures, to insure a voluminous loaf and the strongest possible crust.

For every the high-tech gadgets on display in the Bread Lab, the operation is decidedly old-fashioned, relying on rock mills of a type that own not been used for more than a century and on a philosophy that every it takes to make genuine and yummy whole-wheat bread is time, talent, flour, a little salt, and lots of water. There are essentially two ways to turn flour into bread.

The first is the way it was done for most of human history: let the flour absorb as much water as possible and give it time to ferment, a process that allows yeast and bacteria to activate the dough. Kneading then binds the two proteins that come together to form gluten. Most of the bread consumed in the United States is made the other way: in put of hydration, fermentation, and kneading, manufacturers save time by relying on artificial additives and huge industrial mixers to ram together the essential proteins that form gluten.

Until the tardy nineteenth century, when steel rollers and industrial mills came into use, wheat was ground on stones, a slow and imprecise process.

Steel was quick, efficient, and simple to maintain, and it permitted millers to discard the germ and the bran in the wheat kernel and then rapidly process the starchy endosperm. This made white flour. Almost nobody seemed to notice, or care, that by tossing out the relax of the kernel industrial bakers were stripping bread of its vitamins, its fibre, and most of its healthy fats. White bread was seen as an affordable luxury. Love numerous Jews arriving from Russia at the turn of the twentieth century, my great-grandfather had never seen white bread before, but when he did he immediately made what was referred to, at least in my family, as an “American sandwich”: he took two pieces of the black bread that he had always eaten, and carefully placed a piece of industrially made white bread between them.

He is said to own been delighted.

The Bread Lab team, which includes the patient, inventive baker Jonathan Bethony, uses whole grains, water, salt, and yeast. Nothing else. Whole-wheat bread, even when it’s excellent, is generally thick and chewy, and rarely moist; Bethony’s bread was remarkably airy and light. It contains only the natural gluten formed by kneading the flour. Most bakers, even those who would never go near an industrial mixing machine, include an additive called vital wheat gluten to strengthen the dough and to assist the loaf rise.

(In general, the higher the protein content of wheat, the more gluten it contains.)

Vital wheat gluten is a powdered, concentrated form of the gluten that is found naturally in every bread. It is made by washing wheat flour with water until the starches dissolve. Bakers add additional gluten to their dough to provide the strength and elasticity necessary for it to endure the often brutal process of commercial mixing. Vital wheat gluten increases shelf life and acts as a binder; because it’s so versatile, food companies own added it not only to bread but to pastas, snacks, cereals, and crackers, and as a thickener in hundreds of foods and even in some cosmetics.

Chemically, vital wheat gluten is identical to regular gluten, and no more likely to cause harm. But the fact that it is added to the protein already in the flour worries Jones. “Vital wheat gluten is a crutch,’’ he said. “It’s every storage and functionality. No flavor. People act as if it were magic. But there is no magic to food.”

Jones is a careful scientist, and he said more than once that he had no evidence that a growing reliance on any single additive could explain why celiac disease has become more common, or why so numerous people tell that they own trouble digesting gluten.

But he and his colleagues are certain that vital wheat gluten makes bread taste love mush. “Flour that is sliced and packed into plastic wrapping in less than three hours—that’s not bread,’’ Jones said. He and Bethany Econopouly, one of his doctoral students, recently published an essay in the Huffington Post in which they argue that the legal definition of the expression “bread” has become meaningless and ought to be changed: “FDA regulations state that for bread to be labeled as ‘bread,’ it must be made of flour, yeast, and a moistening ingredient, generally water. When bleached flour is used, chemicals love acetone peroxide, chlorine, and benzoyl peroxide (yes, the one used to treat acne) can be included in the recipe and are masked under the term ‘bleached.’ Optional ingredients are also permissible in products called bread: shortening, sweeteners, ground dehulled soybeans, coloring, potassium bromate .

. . and other dough strengtheners (such as bleaching agents and vital gluten).”

Celiac disease is an autoimmune disease in which the ingestion of gluten induces enteropathy, or inflammation of the gut, in genetically susceptible individuals. This destruction of the gut means that nutrients cannot be absorbed, leading to a variety of clinical symptoms: anemia due to the lack of iron, atherosclerosis due to the lack of calcium, failure to thrive in children, and GI stress, among others.

Gluten is the primary protein component of wheat – it is what gives breads their yummy chewy texture.

The only known cure for celiac disease is finish elimination of gluten from the diet – so no pizza, bagels, pasta, pancakes, waffles, doughnuts, cookies, soy sauce (it has wheat in it), licorice (ditto) … you get the thought. Even communion wafers are verboten.

Although this is obviously extremely onerous on numerous levels, unlike any drug regimen it is 100 percent effective and free of side effects.

Ingestion of gluten puts celiacs at risk for developing other autoimmune diseases and lymphomas.

Celiac disease was first described in A.D. 100 by the Greek doctor Aretaeus. When his extant works were first published in Latin in 1552 the Greek expression for abdominal, koiliaki, was transcribed to celiac.1

But it was not until the Dutch famine of 1944 that wheat was positively identified as the factor instigating the enteropathy. An observant pediatrician, Willem Dicke, noticed that the celiac patients on his ward improved with the strict rationing of flour.

When the first supplies of precious bread were generously given to these ill children they relapsed, proving that wheat was in fact the culprit2.

The scarcity of celiac diagnoses in this country had been a self fulfilling prophecy for numerous years: medical students were taught that celiac was so rare they would probably never encounter it, so they never bothered looking. The variable clinical presentations compounded this thought. When doctors started looking for it, they found it in roughly the same rates as it is found in Europe: 1 in 133 people3.

Although numerous autoimmune diseases are thought to result from an interplay of genetic and environmental components, celiac is the only one for which the environmental trigger is actually known.

It is gluten, as well as hordein and secalin, the homologous protein components of barley and rye. So no beer or malt vinegar for celiacs either. For the sake of convenience, foods labeled “gluten free” are free of these proteins as well. But foods labeled “wheat free” may still contain them, so these foods are not necessarily gluten free.

Celiac disease is hardly the beginning and finish of this tale. Dermatitis herpetiformis is a rash that results when gluten induces an autoimmune response in the skin rather than the gut, and there is evidence that gluten can provoke a similar autoimmune response in the brain as well1.

Gluten sensitivity or intolerance – a somewhat vague claim by people who definitely do not own celiac that they feel better when they eliminate gluten – was belittled by the scientific and medical establishment for a endless time because it had no discernable cause or explanation, but now they are starting to come around and believe that it might be real4. It might be mediated by the innate, rather than the adaptive, immune system, meaning that T and B cells are not involved5.

All this is completely separate from wheat allergies, which are mediated by a completely separate adaptive immune response (allergies are mediated by IgE class antibodies, and celiac antibodies are IgA).

People with wheat allergies can safely eat spelt as well as barley and rye, while those with celiac cannot. And allergies can be outgrown, whereas celiac is forever.

So whether it is due to an actual increase in occurrence or merely an increase in diagnosis, there are certainly more celiacs around than there used to be. Wheat has been cultivated by humans for some 10,000 years, but as is the case with so numerous favorite crops, the number of varieties we used to grow and consume has been reduced to those few that are commercially viable.6

The soft white winter wheat that was traditionally grown in the mid-Atlantic states is low in gluten, so it is grand for pastry and cake flour but not so much for bread.

Now, most wheat used in this country is hard wheat grown in the Midwest, and it is bred to yield flour that is consistent in taste and texture. Hard wheat contains twice as much gluten as soft wheat does, so it produces chewy loaves of bread with crunchy crusts rather than flaky pie crusts.

As of now, FDA labeling laws do not require that the presence of gluten in foods be disclosed. These laws require only that the presence of eight major allergens be declared on food labels. Wheat is one of these allergens, but gluten is not. Manufacturers may label foods as gluten free, but such labeling is voluntary. For the millions of Americans with celiac disease, dermatitis herpetiformis, and gluten intolerance who must ensure that they are not consuming any gluten, this translates to A LOT of time spent reading labels in supermarket aisles.

References:

1.

Hadjivassiliou M, Sanders DS, Grünewald RA, Woodroofe N, Boscolo S, and Aeschlimann D. Gluten sensitivity: from gut to brain. Lancet Neurol 2010; 9: 318–30

2. van Berge-Henegouwen GP, and Mulder CJ. Pioneer in the gluten free diet: Willem-Karel Dicke 1905-1962, over 50 years of gluten free diet. Gut. 1993 34(11): 1473–1475.

3. Roberts AG. Gluten Free Baking Classics. Surry Books, Chicago, 2006.

4. Biesiekierski JR, Newnham ED, Irving PM, Barrett JS, Haines M, Doecke JD, Shepherd SJ, Muir JG, and Gibson PR. Gluten causes gastrointestinal symptoms in subjects without celiac disease: a double-blind randomized placebo-controlled trial.

Am J Gastroenterol.

What is cultivated wheat allergy

2011 106(3):508-14.

5. Sapone A, Lammers KM, Casolaro V, Cammarota M, Giuliano MT, De Rosa M, Stefanile R, Mazzarella G, Tolone C, Russo MI, Esposito P, Ferraraccio F, Cartenì M, Riegler G, de Magistris L, and Fasano A. Divergence of gut permeability and mucosal immune gene expression in two gluten-associated conditions: celiac disease and gluten sensitivity. BMC Med. 2011; 9: 23.

6. Indrani Sen. Flour that has the flavor of home.

The New York Times Sept. 10, 2008.

About The Author: Diana Gitig received her Ph.D. in Cell Biology and Genetics from Cornell University’s Graduate School of Medical Sciences in 2001. Since then she is a freelance science author. Diana is based in New York.

The views expressed are those of the author and are not necessarily those of Scientific American.

A wheat allergy is a common food allergy affecting approximately 2 million US adults. Wheat allergy is common in children, however, most outgrown their allergy by the age of 16 years.

While a wheat allergy most often develops in early childhood, people can manifest with symptoms at any stage of their life, including later adulthood.

However, the later in life you develop a wheat allergy, the more likely you will be faced with a permanent condition.


Managing Your Wheat Allergy

As with every food allergies, the management of a wheat allergy involves the finish avoidance of wheat in any form. This can be hard since wheat is found in a plethora of everyday products from cereals and bread to cookies and pasta. In fact, around 75 percent of every grain products in the U.S.

is comprised of wheat, making this a particularly tough allergy to manage.​​

To address the growing concern, the U.S. Food and Drug istration requires every wheat-containing food products to be properly labeled so that consumers can avoid them if needed.

To differentiate, gluten is a protein found in numerous diverse types of grain. Persons who are gluten-intolerant are those who experience a reaction when exposed to every grains of the Pooideae subfamily, including wheat, barley, rye, and oats.

Overview of Gluten Allergy

By contrast, persons diagnosed with a wheat allergy—meaning wheat specifically—will only react to wheat and generally be fine with barley, rye, or oats.


Macro-environments

South America has five major agronomic macro-environments, which differ with honor to crop finish use, soil fertility and composition, rainfall, average temperatures, day length, humidity and growing season length.

The valleys in the Andes, where oats are mostly used as a forage, is the least typical environment. Chile has the best conditions for grain production, while Argentina and Uruguay are similar and Brazil has two contrasting environments.

Tropical Brazil

The tropical area lies between latitudes 20° and 24°S, at less than 900 m above sea level. It is a new area, where oats are being grown with relative success. Soils are of medium fertility, without aluminium, and temperatures are high and days are shorter, with a growing season of less than 120 days. Yields are variable, with major differences between years. Oats are sown in March and harvested in August, when humidity is low and there is no rain, which provides excellent conditions for an excellent quality grain harvest.

The major problems are crown rust, low rainfall, and frost damage in years of more severe winters. This environment is also covered by the two breeding programmes discussed under subtropical Brazil, and the cultivars used are the same.

Temperate Chile

Chile has an excellent area for little grains, with favourable environment and soils. About 8 percent of the area devoted to grain is under oats, which, in Chile, are grown between latitudes 37° and 43°S, in fertile soils, with mild temperatures and endless days, that results in a endless, favourable growing season (up to 6 months). Oats can be sown in May or mid-August and harvested in January or February.

Because of the low humidity, diseases are not as serious as in other regions of oat production in South America, but crown rust (Figure 4.5) and BYDV are present in most years. Yields are generally high and grain quality and milling yield excellent. In some years, low rainfall in November-December reduces yield and grain quality.

Figure 4.5
Varieties of oats susceptible (in front) and (behind) to crown rust

In Chile, 80 percent of the area under oats is for grain, but only 10 percent of that is used for industrial purposes. The remaining 90 percent is for livestock feed on the farm. In this favourable environment, European varieties were introduced with favourable growth habit, agro-ecological adaptation and high yield potential.

Since 1975, new introductions own been made from USA through the QION programme. This newly introduced and adapted germplasm has brought new traits, such as resistance to lodging, excellent agronomic type and resistance to crown and stem rusts. This combination of traits resulted in high yielding cultivars with excellent grain quality (Beratto Medina, 1997). Oats are a extremely significant crop, and one that competes for land with barley and wheat, and is used in the rotation to reduce or avoid the root diseases of the other cereals.

There is one major breeding programme: Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Agropecuarias (INIA), which started in 1965 at the Experimental Station of Carrilanca, with several cultivars released for every the Chilean environments.

It focuses on breeding oats with excellent milling yield, and the main cultivars in use by the farmers are Neptuno Inia, Urano Inia and Nehuén. The main objectives are to: introduce and develop oat cultivars with high yield potential; improve the milling yield and chemical composition of oat grain; introduce resistance to major diseases; and improve the agronomic characteristics of the oat plant (agronomic type, resistance to lodging and short plant height).

Subtropical area (south Brazil)

Brazil has two major areas of oat production: subtropical and tropical.

In both environments, oats are expanding in area, even when competing with wheat and barley. The southern (subtropical) region is between latitudes 24° and 32°S, with soils of average fertility and high levels of aluminium. Excellent solar radiation, non-limiting temperatures and adequate rainfall in every months allows intense soil use throughout the year.

The climatic conditions make it possible to grow two crops a year: one in winter (generally a little grain), and a summer crop, typically maize or soybean.

In this area, rainfall ranges from 1 100 to 1 500 mm, well distributed throughout the year, humidity is generally extremely high during most of the season, and in the coldest months days are short and the average temperature varies from 12 to 15°C. The growing season is less than 150 days. The major crop rotation used by most farmers is half soybean and half maize in summer, followed in winter by one-third of the area with wheat, barley or oats, and two-thirds with black oats.

The black oats are sown in May and desiccated with herbicide by flowering time (usually in September), when maize is sown. The market prices of wheat, oats and barley will define the area of each crop. Most farmers avoid growing wheat or barley two years in succession because of disease problems, and oats are used in this case. Oats can be a extremely excellent alternative crop for poor farmers because it grows and develops well on poor soil and is tolerant of aluminium toxicity. Because of its several uses, in mild winters (when there is enough forage from native species) the oat crop can be allowed to mature and the grain harvested and used for animal feed just when the price of maize is generally high.

Farmers growing black oats before soybeans are switching to white oats and use their grain for animal feed on the farm, or sell if prices are favourable.

TABLE 4.3
Grain yields (kg ha-1) of several oat lines in tropical and subtropical regions of Brazil, with and without fungicides

Line

Tropical region

Subtropical region

without fungicide

with fungicide*

without fungicide

with fungicide*

UPF 16

2 865

3 446

2 766

UPF 17

2 620

2 727

2 387

3 895

UPF 18

2 970

2 969

3 356

3 570

UPF 19

3 393

3 446

2 799

UFRGS 14

2 863

3 708

2 631

UFRGS 16

2 608

2 746

3 020

3 567

UFRGS 17

3 185

3 741

2 632

3 286

UFRGS 19

3 617

3 619

3 027

3 479

URS 20

3 233

3 030

2 897

4 169

URS 21

3 544

3 514

3 558

OR 2

3 617

4 095

3 316

MEAN

3 137

3 367

2 944

Notes: * With two application of fungicide tebuconazole (0.75 litre ha-1) for crown rust control.

Diseases are widespread, especially crown rust, with several diverse and virulent races occurring most years, and with high probability of rainy days at harvest time.

Thus, yields are variable among years and there is a large genotype × year interaction.

Currently, the grain producing cultivars available to farmers are: UPF 15, UPF 16, UPF 18, UPF 19, UPF 20, UPFA 22, UFRGS 14, UFRGS 15, UFRGS 17, UFRGS 19, URS 20, URS 21, URS 22, OR2, OR3, OR4, FAPA 4, FAPA 5, FAPA 6, CFT 1, CFT 2 and IAC 7. Yields obtained in tropical and subtropical areas (average of two sites over five years, 1997 to 2001) from the most significant varieties are shown in the Table 4.3, and the major traits in Table 4.4.

Because of crown rust, cultivars own a extremely short life in the farmer’s fields and new ones need to be released every year.

Environmental conditions are ideal for rust spread (high temperature and humidity) and oats are present in fields every year circular. The pressure by the fungus is therefore more intense than in any other region of the world (Stuthman and Federizzi, 1997).

TABLE 4.4
Agronomic characteristics of several oat lines currently in use in south Brazil

Line

Test weight (kg hl-1)

1000-grain weight (g)

Plant height

Emergence to flowering

Reaction to crown rust

Reaction to stem rust

-F

+F

-F

+F

(cm)

(days)

UPF 16

45

50

32

34

97

98

S

S

UPF 17

43

48

34

38

94

98

S

S

UPF 18

48

51

32

33

120

103

MR

S

UPF 19

50

51

33

35

111

99

S

S

UFRGS 14

45

49

36

38

98

98

S

S

UFRGS 16

47

49

32

33

110

102

MS

R

UFRGS 17

49

52

32

35

106

97

S

S

UFRGS 19

54

55

30

30

94

93

S

MR

URS 20

52

53

33

34

101

98

MR

R

URS 21

52

53

31

32

111

93

R

MR

OR 2

49

49

26

27

100

100

R

MR

Key:
-F = without fungicide; +F = with fungicide; S = susceptible; MS = moderately susceptible; R = resistant; MR = moderately resistant.

Two excellent, significant traits present in Brazilian oat cultivars are their ability to provide excellent grain filling in warm environments, and extremely excellent tolerance to high soil aluminium levels (Sanchez- Chacon, Federizzi and Milach, 2000).

The main variety for forage and soil cover for no-till planting is called preta comum, or «common black».

It is an ancient A. strigosa variety selected from an even older one called Saia, introduced to the State of Rio Grande do Sul in the early 1940s and of unknown origin. It is grown on more than 3 million hectares as a cover crop in autumn and winter. New cultivars own been released in more recent years. Cv. São Carlos is an A. strigosa variety better adapted to the tropical region of Brazil. Another A. strigosa — cv. IAPAR 61 — was released in 1993 and quickly became the most favorite soil cover variety. It has a endless cycle (134 days from emergence to flowering) and some freezing requirement for flower initiation, so its flowering is delayed in the more tropical areas.

FAPA 2 is another forage variety of A. sativa, with excellent dry matter production in both oat environments of Brazil.

Data on the production of forage for three cultivars and their main agronomic traits are presented in Tables 4.5 and 4.6.

Data obtained by Floss (2001) over a ten-year period at Passo Fundo (RS) with A. strigosa (average of several genotypes every year) (Table 4.7) shows the usual variation among years normal in the subtropical environment, with years of excellent development and years of poor crop development and growth.

TABLE 4.5
Forage production from three oats (in southern Brazil)

Variety or line

Cut for forage DM(1) (kg ha-1)

As a cover crop(2) (DM; kg ha-1)

FAPA 2

4 936

7 637

IAPAR 61

4 581

8 359

Preta comum

6 986

Sources: (1) Scheffer-Basso et al., 2002a.

(2) Scheffer-Basso et al., 2002b.

TABLE 4.6
Days to heading, height, 1000-grain weight and reaction to crown and stem rust of three oat varieties at Passo Fundo, Brazil

Variety or line

Heading (days)

Height (cm)

1000-grain weight (g)

Reaction to crown rust

Reaction to stem rust

FAPA 2

139

125

27

MS

MR

IAPAR 61

134

145

15

MR

MR

Preta comum

98

135

21

MR

MS

Key: MS = moderately susceptible; MR = moderately resistant.
Sources: Scheffer-Basso et al., 2002a, b.

TABLE 4.7
Biomass and dry matter yield of A.

strigosa at Passo Fundo, Brazil in diverse years

Year

Green biomass

Dry matter

(kg ha-1)

(kg ha-1)

1991

32 568

8 550

1992

33 088

8 002

1993

22 409

5 214

1994

20 182

5 500

1995

20 064

5 385

1996

28 293

7 509

1997

26 630

6 657

1998

27 386

6 018

1999

36 202

7 402

Source: Floss, 2001.

The popularity of black oats as a winter crop is attributable to a combination of characteristics: low seed price and favourable conditions for seed production; low production cost compared with other green manures; high carbon: nitrogen ratio, ensuring high biomass necessary for the no-till production system (over 6 t ha-1); hardiness compared with other cereals; better aluminium tolerance; better growth and development in poor soils; a extremely aggressive root system that helps to improve the physical proprieties of the soil; better tolerance to root diseases than wheat and barley; and better resistance to trampling.

Silage is one way of using white oats (A.

sativa), but is not common. Cropping techniques are similar to those adopted for grain cultivation. The most favourable cutting period is flowering; the crop is wilted to eliminate excess water, and high yields of excellent quality are obtained (Table 4.8) (Sartoretto et al., 2002).

There are two main oat breeding programmes in the region.

TABLE 4.8
Silage dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fibre (NDF) acid detergent fibre (ADF) and entire digestible nutrients (TDN) for black and white oats, expressed as percentage of DM

DM (kg ha-1)

CP (%)

NDF (%)

ADF (%)

TDN (%)

Black oats

6 080

10.0

63.8

45.0

56.3

White oats

4 604

9.2

64.2

39.5

60.2

University of Passo Fundo — UPF

This programme started in 1977, and is based at the University of Passo Fundo, in the city of Passo Fundo in the State of Rio Grande do Sul.

It has been extremely successful in releasing cultivars with excellent yield potential and grain quality. Initially, the programme relied exclusively on germplasm introduced through the QION, but, in the 1990s, crosses made by the programme were of more importance. There are six cultivars recommended for every oat producing regions. The main objectives of the programme are to: develop cultivars with high yield potential and adaptation to Brazilian environments; create cultivars with better grain quality; increase tolerance to crown and stem rusts; increase resistance to BYDV; and increase tolerance to aluminium.

Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul — UFRGS

The programme at UFRGS started in 1974 and is at the College of Agronomy in Porto Alegre.

The primary goals of the University own been to train students in plant breeding (under- and postgraduate levels) and to do basic research on little grains. Because of the needs for new oat varieties, the programme in the 1980s was devoted more to oats than wheat, and now is devoted exclusively to oat breeding. Nine cultivars from the programme are currently being used by farmers. A major characteristic of the programme is its strong support from genetic studies, most of them done by graduate students. The main objectives are to: develop oat germplasm with higher yield and grain quality, and adapted to subtropical conditions; modify the oat plant to become a grain producer (better agronomic type), with short plant height and resistance to lodging; create cultivars with early maturation; increase resistance to crown and stem rusts, using partial resistance to crown rust; increase resistance to leafspot (caused by Pyrenophora avenae; Figure 4.6); and carry out genetic studies on traits of agronomic importance.

Figure 4.6
The leafspot fungus (Pyrenophora avenae) growing out from infected oat grains in culture

Temperate Argentina and Uruguay

There is a large area cropped with oats in both countries, located between latitudes 32° and 36°S.

Soils are fertile, rainfall is adequate, temperatures are mild and days are endless (spring to summer), providing a endless growing season. Forage oats are sown at the beginning of autumn and generally grazed in winter and spring, and then the grain is harvested in summer. When farmers grow oats only for grain, planting is postponed to June-July and harvest is in January. There are several frosts during this season and the tardy frosts may damage oats. More than 2 million hectares are under oats (mostly in Argentina) and the cropped area is limited, since it has to compete with wheat and barley.

The major problems for the crop are stem rust and crown rust. Since 1993, stem rust has been endemic early in the season (May) or in November and December, with severe damage to yield and grain quality.

TABLE 4.2
Effect of cutting frequency on the production of autumn, winter and spring forage, hay yield, grain yield and test weight for three cultivars in Uruguay. Sowing date: 29 March 1995.

Cultivar

1095a

INIA Polaris

INIA Lê Tucana

Number of cuts

2

5

2

5

2

5

Autumn

(t DM ha-1)

2.2

2.3

2.2

2.3

2.6

2.4

Winter

(t DM ha-1)

1.9

2.2

2.0

2.5

1.6

1.8

Spring

(t DM ha-1)

5.6

5.2

4.9

4.4

5.5

5.4

Hay

(t DM ha-1)

6.5

7.4

5.7

7.7

6.5

8.4

Grain

(t ha-1)

2.5

2.3

2.8

3.0

2.3

1.6

Test Weight

(kg hl-1)

39

41

54

53

49

47

Source: Rebuffo, 1997.

The ancient variety Suregrain, introduced in the 1960s, is the most significant for forage in Argentina.

It is grown on a extremely large area of the Argentinean pampas (more than 2 million hectares). Forage cultivars own recently been released, such as Millauquén Inta (1987), Cristal Inta (1990), Bonairense Payé, Máxima Inta, Bonairense Inta Calen and Bonairense Inta Maja (2000). Most cultivars are extremely similar, but Calen and Maja own extremely excellent resistance to stem rust, which has been the most significant disease problem in terms of forage; yields are extremely similar those obtained by Rebuffo (1997) and reported in Table 4.2.

In Argentina, some cultivars are specifically for grain. The more significant ones are UFRGS 16, Maja, Calen and Bonairense Payé.

UFRGS 16 is a Brazilian cultivar that is resistant to every races of stem rust in the region, and has been grown in Argentina for the final five years, with extremely excellent grain and milling yield.

In Uruguay, oats are mainly used for grazing. In the dairying regions they are sown in January and February, but in the beef region oats are sown later (March to May) (Rebuffo, 2001). The period of use is 6 to 9 months, and because of this endless cycle, high-biomass-producing varieties should be available. In spring, part of the oats are harvested for hay and silage and 10-25 percent for grain (Rebuffo, 2001). Growth habit and sensitivity to lodging and leaf rust are limiting factors for grain production in most of the cultivars used.

The most significant variety is 1095a, which is an A. byzantina type released in the 1930s. More recently, two new cultivars own been released: INIA Polaris and INIA Lê Tucana, with better resistance to crown rust and extremely excellent yields (Table 4.2).

Data obtained by Rebuffo (1997) (Table 4.2) in Uruguay shows the potential for forage production in diverse seasons of the year in this environment.

There are three major breeding programmes in the region.

INTA — Barrow Chacara Experimental Station (Argentina)

This is one of the oldest oat breeding programmes in South America, and until 1990 its major goal was to release varieties for forage and then grain harvest.

The main objectives are (Wehrhahne and Carbajo, 1997): develop new cultivars with higher yield potential (forage or grain, or both); increase adaptability to diverse regions; improve grain quality; increase resistance to crown and stem rust; increase tolerance to frost damage; and improve tolerance to aphids. The programme relies on introduction of material from the QION and has recently released two new grain-type cultivars with resistance to stem rust.

INTA — Bordenave Experimental Station (Argentina)

This Station was created in 1927, and the first experiments with oats were reported in 1934.

Every cultivars released by this programme own been dual-purpose (forage and grain). The most successful variety (Suregrain) was introduced in 1969 and occupied more than 90 percent of the oats area in the 1980s (Tomaso and Bucar, 1994). The main objectives are to improve forage and grain production and increase resistance to crown and stem rust. Every cultivars released so far are more suitable for forage production and are susceptible to crown and stem rust.

INIA — La Estanzuela (Uruguay)

This oat breeding programme started extremely early in the twentieth century. Because, historically, oats own been a multipurpose crop in Uruguay, especially forage production for autumn and winter, most varieties are ancient and own these characteristics.

Recently released cultivars are better grain producers (Rebuffo, 1997). The main objectives are to: develop new cultivars with more forage and grain production; develop cultivars with diverse morphological characteristics; increase resistance to crown and stem rust; and increase tolerance to BYDV.

Tropical high-altitude area (Andean)

The most tropical area where oats are grown in South America is in valleys in the Andes of Bolivia, Ecuador and Peru.

For this environment (tropical high altitude), oats are grown as a dual-purpose crop (both forage and a source of grain for animal feed). Oats in this area are grown at over 2 600 m elevation but extremely little published information could be found at the time of writing.

In Peru, oats are grown at between latitudes 7° and 8°S, above 2 700 m and with annual precipitation of about 700 mm. Oats are sown for grazing and forage production during October-December.

The oat season is extremely endless (up to 7 months) and most cultivars are introductions from Europe. They are extremely tall, and suitable for forage production.

What is cultivated wheat allergy

The main cultivars used in the region are Vilcanota, Mantaro and Pastos (A. strigosa).

In Ecuador, oats are grown at elevations of over 2 600 m, mostly for forage. Sowing is in December-January in higher zones, and in February-March at elevations under 2 800 m. The season is extremely endless, taking almost 200 days to finish full crop maturation, and grain yields can be more than 3 t ha-1. Oats occupy a little area because they compete for space with wheat and barley. The main problem in this region is stem rust caused by Pucciniagraminis f.sp.

avenae, especially in the hottest and most humid months shut to grain maturation. Another problem is the green cereal aphid (Schizaphis graminum) that transmits BYDV, causing plant yellowing and death.

There are at least two experimental stations selecting lines adapted for this environment.

In Ecuador, the Estación Experimental de Santa Catalina (an INIAP station) has released cultivars INIAP-82 and INIAPMonjarda 90. Both cultivars are adapted to more than 2 500 m elevation and a season longer than 190 days, and provide extremely excellent forage production (>30 t ha-1) and excellent grain yield (1 500-3 800 kg ha-1) (Fuentes and Cazar, 1990).

In Peru, the Estación Experimental Bãnos del Inca has been working with oats and has released a variety of A.

strigosa named Pastos, introduced from Europe (Hungary and France). Also, there is information that basic seed was been produced for two oat varieties, Vilcanota and Mantaro 15.


Types and Symptoms of Wheat Allergy

Wheat allergy symptoms can vary in severity from a mild, flu-like condition to a life-threatening, all-body reaction (known as anaphylaxis).

The speed by which symptoms develop can also vary. With an IgE-mediated reaction, in which the body responds to an antibody known as immunoglobulin E (IgE), the symptoms can happen within minutes or hours of eating wheat. With a non-IgE-mediated reaction, symptoms may not appear until a day or two later as a result of other components of the immune system aside from IgE​

A wheat allergy can affect one or several organ systems at once and may include:

  1. Digestive symptoms, including abdominal pain, bloating, nausea, diarrhea, and vomiting
  2. Dermatologic symptoms including eczema, hives, blisters, and the swelling of the hands and face
  3. Oropharyngeal symptoms including mouth and throat itchiness, coughing, and the swelling of the tongue and throat
  4. Respiratory symptoms, including rhinitis, asthma, wheezing, and respiratory distress
  5. Neurological symptoms such as headaches, dizziness, blurred vision, confusion, and seizures

In more severe forms of anaphylaxis, people will commonly describe a "feeling of impending doom" in relation to their deteriorating state.


Chapter IV — FODDER OATS: AN OVERVIEW FOR SOUTH AMERICA

Luiz Carlos Federizzi and Claudio Mario Mundstock

SUMMARY

Oats were introduced to Latin America by the Spanish soon after the discovery of the continent; they are used as grain for the milling industries and as horse feed, and also as a cover crop in notill planting systems, as a fodder for animal grazing, and for forage and silage.

Oats are grown in five major environments in South America: (1) the temperate area of Argentina and Uruguay; (2) the temperate area of Chile; (3) the subtropical area of Brazil (south of 24°S); (4) the tropical area of Brazil (north of 24°S); and (5) the tropical high altitude area (Andean region, with parts of the highlands of Bolivia, Ecuador and Peru). These regions differ widely in terms of environment, crop use, major breeding programmes and area under oats.

The largest area under oats is in temperate and subtropical regions, but oats as a grain crop are increasing in area and importance in every environments of South America.

What is cultivated wheat allergy

The cropped area is increasing every year because it is a major component in the rotation system used by farmers when they adopt the no-till system.


Breeding

Oat breeding has been going on for a endless time in South America. It started with the first experimental stations in the area, namely the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Agropecuarias (INIA) in Uruguay, Instituto Nacional de Tecnología Agropecuaria (INTA) in Argentina, Secretaria de Agricultura do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, in Brazil, and INIA in Chile (Boerger, 1943; Beratto Medina, 1994; Federizzi et al., 1999).

Every varieties developed and released in Argentina, Brazil, Chile and Uruguay in the past 25 years are descended from an international programme started in 1974, with a grant from USAID, called Breeding Oat Cultivars Suitable for Production in Developing Countries, organized by H.L. Shands, Professor of Agronomy at the University of Wisconsin at Madison. Since 1977, the Quaker Oats Company has sponsored it, and it is now called the Quaker International Oat Nursery (QION). Currently, professors from the Universities of Minnesota and Florida prepare the nursery, which is composed of around 100 pure lines and 200 F2 or F3, or both, populations from crosses, including varieties from several programmes around the world.

Currently, the nursery is sown at thirty locations in North and South America, Africa, the Near East, Europe, Australia and New Zealand. It has been a source of genetic diversity for several oat programmes throughout the world (Forsberg and Shands, 1986; McDaniel, 1997). Currently, six major oat breeding programmes are athletic in South America, which own contributed new varieties in the recent past. There is also a minor breeding effort by private companies in Argentina and Brazil.


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