What is cross reactivity in food allergies

A food allergy occurs when the body’s immune system sees a certain food as harmful and reacts by causing symptoms. This is an allergic reaction. Foods that cause allergic reactions are allergens.

References

  • Chen JY, Dai XF:
    Cloning and characterization of the Gossypium hirsutum major latex protein gene and functional analysis in Arabidopsis thaliana.
    Planta 2010, 231, 861-73. [PubMed][Full Text]
  • Sliwiak J, Dolot R, Michalska K, Szpotkowski K, Bujacz G, Sikorski M, Jaskolski M:
    Crystallographic and CD probing of ligand-induced conformational changes in a plant PR-10 protein.
    J Struct Biol 2016, 193, 55-66.

    [PubMed][Full Text]

  • Osmark P, Boyle B, Brisson N:
    Sequential and structural homology between intracellular pathogenesis-related proteins and a group of latex proteins.
    Plant Mol Biol 1998, 38, 1243-6. [PubMed]
  • Fernandes H, Michalska K, Sikorski M, Jaskolski M:
    Structural and functional aspects of PR-10 proteins.
    FEBS J 2013, 280, 1169-99. [PubMed][Full Text]
  • Vieths S, Scheurer S, Ballmer-Weber B:
    Current understanding of cross-reactivity of food allergens and pollen.
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 2002, 964, 47-68.

    [PubMed]

  • Markovic-Housley Z, Degano M, Lamba D, von Roepenack-Lahaye E, Clemens S, Susani M, Ferreira F, Scheiner O, Breiteneder H:
    Crystal structure of a hypoallergenic isoform of the major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1 and its likely biological function as a plant steroid carrier.
    J Mol Biol 2003, 325, 123-33.

    What is cross reactivity in food allergies

    [PubMed]

  • Michalska K, Fernandes H, Sikorski M, Jaskolski M:
    Crystal structure of Hyp-1, a St. John’s wort protein implicated in the biosynthesis of hypericin.
    J Struct Biol 2010, 169, 161-71. [PubMed][Full Text]
  • Radauer C, Lackner P, Breiteneder H:
    The Bet v 1 fold: an ancient, versatile scaffold for binding of large, hydrophobic ligands.
    BMC Evol Biol 2008, 8, 286. [PubMed][Full Text]
  • Seutter von Loetzen C, Hoffmann T, Hartl MJ, Schweimer K, Schwab W, Rosch P, Hartl-Spiegelhauer O:
    Secret of the major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1: identification of the physiological ligand.
    Biochem J 2014, 457, 379-90.

    [PubMed][Full Text]

  • Guhsl EE, Hofstetter G, Hemmer W, Ebner C, Vieths S, Vogel L, Breiteneder H, Radauer C:
    Vig r 6, the cytokinin-specific binding protein from mung bean (Vigna radiata) sprouts, cross-reacts with Bet v 1-related allergens and binds IgE from birch pollen allergic patients’ sera.
    Mol Nutr Food Res 2014, 58, 625-34.

    What is cross reactivity in food allergies

    [PubMed][Full Text]

  • Park CJ, Kim KJ, Shin R, Park JM, Shin YC, Paek KH:
    Pathogenesis-related protein 10 isolated from boiling pepper functions as a ribonuclease in an antiviral pathway.
    Plant J 2004, 37, 186-98. [PubMed]
  • D’Avino R, Bernardi ML, Wallner M, Palazzo P, Camardella L, Tuppo L, Alessandri C, Breiteneder H, Ferreira F, Ciardiello MA, Mari A:
    Kiwifruit Act d 11 is the first member of the ripening-related protein family identified as an allergen.
    Allergy 2011, 66, 870-7.

    [PubMed][Full Text]

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Biochemical properties

Bet v 1-related proteins are widely distributed among vascular plants. The family was classified by sequence similarity into two large and several little subfamilies showing low levels of sequence identity but conserved structures [1]. The largest of these is the pathogenesis-related protein family PR-10 [2]. The expression of these proteins is either induced by pathogen attack or abiotic stress or developmentally regulated. PR-10 proteins are expressed in high concentrations in reproductive tissues such as pollen, seeds and fruits.

The biochemical function of most PR-10 proteins is unknown. For some PR-10 subfamily members an enzymatic function as ribonuclease [3] or oxidative coupling enzyme involved in biosynthesis of secondary metabolites was shown [4]. Love every members of the Bet v 1-family, PR-10 proteins contain a large ligand-binding cavity that can accommodate diverse ligands including plant steroids [5], cytokinins [6] and flavonoids [7]. The other large subfamily is a group of major latex proteins and ripening-related proteins (MLP/RRP) first described in the latex of opium poppy [8].

Their biologic function is unknown, but they appear to own a role in defense against biotic and abiotic stress [9].

Allergens from this family

The major birch pollen allergen, Bet v 1, is a member of the PR-10 family. Closely-related, cross-reactive allergens were found in the pollen of other trees from the order Fagales such as hazel, alder, oak and chestnut. Numerous birch pollen-allergic patients show allergic reactions to various fruits and vegetables, which are caused by IgE cross-reactivity between Bet v 1 and homologous allergens from plant foods [10].

Most Bet v 1-related food allergens were found in members of certain plant families: Rosaceae (apple, pear, rock fruits), Apiaceae (celery, carrot), and Fabaceae (soybean, peanut). Only two Bet v 1-related allergens were identified exterior the PR-10 subfamily. Vig r 6 is a minor allergen from mung bean and member of the cytokinin-specific binding proteins subfamily, a little subfamily distantly related to the PR-10 group [11].

What is cross reactivity in food allergies

Act d 11 is a minor kiwifruit allergen belonging to the MLP/RRP subfamily [12].

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Two Categories of Food Allergies

[top]

Biochemical properties

Bet v 1-related proteins are widely distributed among vascular plants. The family was classified by sequence similarity into two large and several little subfamilies showing low levels of sequence identity but conserved structures [1]. The largest of these is the pathogenesis-related protein family PR-10 [2]. The expression of these proteins is either induced by pathogen attack or abiotic stress or developmentally regulated.

PR-10 proteins are expressed in high concentrations in reproductive tissues such as pollen, seeds and fruits. The biochemical function of most PR-10 proteins is unknown. For some PR-10 subfamily members an enzymatic function as ribonuclease [3] or oxidative coupling enzyme involved in biosynthesis of secondary metabolites was shown [4]. Love every members of the Bet v 1-family, PR-10 proteins contain a large ligand-binding cavity that can accommodate diverse ligands including plant steroids [5], cytokinins [6] and flavonoids [7].

The other large subfamily is a group of major latex proteins and ripening-related proteins (MLP/RRP) first described in the latex of opium poppy [8]. Their biologic function is unknown, but they appear to own a role in defense against biotic and abiotic stress [9].

Allergens from this family

The major birch pollen allergen, Bet v 1, is a member of the PR-10 family. Closely-related, cross-reactive allergens were found in the pollen of other trees from the order Fagales such as hazel, alder, oak and chestnut. Numerous birch pollen-allergic patients show allergic reactions to various fruits and vegetables, which are caused by IgE cross-reactivity between Bet v 1 and homologous allergens from plant foods [10].

Most Bet v 1-related food allergens were found in members of certain plant families: Rosaceae (apple, pear, rock fruits), Apiaceae (celery, carrot), and Fabaceae (soybean, peanut). Only two Bet v 1-related allergens were identified exterior the PR-10 subfamily. Vig r 6 is a minor allergen from mung bean and member of the cytokinin-specific binding proteins subfamily, a little subfamily distantly related to the PR-10 group [11]. Act d 11 is a minor kiwifruit allergen belonging to the MLP/RRP subfamily [12].

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Two Categories of Food Allergies

  • Shortness of breath, trouble breathing, wheezing
  • Stomach pain, vomiting, diarrhea
  • Swelling of the lips, tongue or throat
  • Immunoglobulin E (IgE) mediated.

    Symptoms result from the body’s immune system making antibodies called Immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibodies. These IgE antibodies react with a certain food.

  • Skin rash, itching, hives
  • Non-IgE mediated. Other parts of the body’s immune system react to a certain food. This reaction causes symptoms, but does not involve an IgE antibody. Someone can own both IgE mediated and non-IgE mediated food allergies.
  • Feeling love something terrible is about to happen

Links to Pfam

Family-defining Pfam domains (at least one of these domains is present in each family member):

Pfam domain Pfam clan
PF00407 Pathogenesis-related protein Bet v I family CL0209 Bet V 1 love

Non-IgE Mediated Food Allergies

Most symptoms of non-IgE mediated food allergies involve the digestive tract.

Symptoms may be vomiting and diarrhea. The symptoms can take longer to develop and may final longer than IgE mediated allergy symptoms. Sometimes, a reaction to a food allergen occurs up 3 days after eating the food allergen.

When an allergic reaction occurs with this type of allergy, epinephrine is generally not needed.

What is cross reactivity in food allergies

In general, the best way to treat these allergies is to stay away from the food that causes the reaction. Under are examples of conditions related to non-IgE mediated food allergies.

Not every children who react to a certain food own an allergy. They may own food intolerance. Examples are lactose intolerance, gluten intolerance, sulfite sensitivity or dye sensitivity. Staying away from these foods is the best way to avoid a reaction. Your child’s doctor may propose other steps to prevent a reaction. If your kid has any food allergy symptoms, see your child’s doctor or allergist. Only a doctor can properly diagnose whether your kid has an IgE- or non-IgE food allergy.

Both can be present in some children.

Eosinophilic Esophagitis (EoE)

Eosinophilic (ee-uh-sin-uh-fil-ik) esophagitis is an inflamed esophagus. The esophagus is a tube from the throat to the stomach. An allergy to a food can cause this condition.

With EoE, swallowing food can be hard and painful. Symptoms in infants and toddlers are irritability, problems with eating and poor weight acquire. Older children may own reflux, vomiting, stomach pain, chest pain and a feeling love food is “stuck” in their throat. The symptoms can happen days or even weeks after eating a food allergen.

EoE is treated by special diets that remove the foods that are causing the condition.

Medication may also be used to reduce inflammation.

Food Protein-Induced Enterocolitis Syndrome (FPIES)

FPIES is another type of food allergy. It most often affects young infants. Symptoms generally don’t appear for two or more hours. Symptoms include vomiting, which starts about 2 hours or later after eating the food causing the condition. This condition can also cause diarrhea and failure to acquire weight or height. Once the baby stops eating the food causing the allergy, the symptoms go away.

What is cross reactivity in food allergies

Rarely, severe vomiting and diarrhea can happen which can lead to dehydration and even shock. Shock occurs when the body is not getting enough blood flow. Emergency treatment for severe symptoms must happen correct away at a hospital. The foods most likely to cause a reaction are dairy, soy, rice, oat, barley, green beans, peas, sweet potatoes, squash and poultry.

Allergic Proctocolitis

Allergic proctocolitis is an allergy to formula or breast milk. This condition inflames the lower part of the intestine.

It affects infants in their first year of life and generally ends by age 1 year.

The symptoms include blood-streaked, watery and mucus-filled stools. Infants may also develop green stools, diarrhea, vomiting, anemia (low blood count) and fussiness. When properly diagnosed, symptoms resolve once the offending food(s) are removed from the diet.

Medical review December 2014.

AF069: Bet v 1 family

IgE Mediated Food Allergies

The IgE mediated food allergies most common in infants and children are eggs, milk, peanuts, tree nuts, soy and wheat. The allergic reaction can involve the skin, mouth, eyes, lungs, heart, gut and brain.

Some of the symptoms can include:

  1. Stomach pain, vomiting, diarrhea
  2. Swelling of the lips, tongue or throat
  3. Shortness of breath, trouble breathing, wheezing
  4. Skin rash, itching, hives
  5. Feeling love something terrible is about to happen

Sometimes allergy symptoms are mild. Other times they can be severe. Take every allergic symptoms seriously. Mild and severe symptoms can lead to a serious allergic reaction called anaphylaxis (anna-fih-LACK-sis). This reaction generally involves more than one part of the body and can get worse quick.

Anaphylaxis must be treated correct away to provide the best chance for improvement and prevent serious, potentially life-threatening complications.

Treat anaphylaxis with epinephrine. This medicine is safe and comes in an easy-to-use device called an auto-injector. You can’t rely on antihistamines to treat anaphylaxis. The symptoms of an anaphylactic reaction happen shortly after contact with an allergen. In some individuals, there may be a delay of two to three hours before symptoms first appear.

Cross-Reactivity and Oral Allergy Syndrome

Having an IgE mediated allergy to one food can mean your kid is allergic to similar foods. For example, if your kid is allergic to shrimp, he or she may be allergic to other types of shellfish, such as crab or crayfish.

Or if your kid is allergic to cow’s milk, he or she may also be allergic to goat’s and sheep’s milk. The reaction between diverse foods is called cross-reactivity. This happens when proteins in one food are similar to the proteins in another food.

Cross-reactivity also can happen between latex and certain foods. For example, a kid who has an allergy to latex may also own an allergy to bananas, avocados, kiwis or chestnuts.

Some people who own allergies to pollens, such as ragweed and grasses, may also be allergic to some foods.

Proteins in the pollens are love the proteins in some fruits and vegetables. So, if your kid is allergic to ragweed, he or she may own an allergic reaction to melons and bananas. That’s because the protein in ragweed looks love the proteins in melons and bananas. This condition is oral allergy syndrome.

Symptoms of an oral allergy syndrome include an itchy mouth, throat or tongue. Symptoms can be more severe and may include hives, shortness of breath and vomiting.

What is cross reactivity in food allergies

Reactions generally happen only when someone eats raw food. In rare cases, reactions can be life-threatening and need epinephrine.

Links to Wikipedia

[top]

If you own updates or corrections for this entry, please contact the site istrator: christian.radauer@meduniwien.ac.at .

Allergy to goat and sheep milk without allergy to cows’ milk


Cows’ milk allergy occurs in 2% to 6% of the baby population, being the most frequent cause of food allergy. Numerous of these infants cannot tolerate goats’ or sheeps’ milk either (Bellioni-Businjco et al, 1999).

Conversely, the goat’s or sheep’s milk allergies that are not associated with allergic cross-reactivity to cow’s milk are rare.

Until 2000 a dozen observations of caprine and ovine milk without allergy to bovine milk own been described (Wüthrich and Johansson,1995; Calvani and Allessandri, 1998; Umpiérrez et al, 1999). Since 2000 more frequent observations own been reported (Orlando and Breton-Bouveyron, 2000; Lamblin et al, 2001; Munoz-Martin et al, 2004; Restany, 2004; Martins, 2005; Attou et al, 2005; Tavarez et al, 2007; Boissieu et Dupont, 2008) and significative series own been described: 18 observations by Paty et al (2003), 31 by Bidat et al (2003) and 28 by Ah-Leung et al (2006).

Recently Vitte and Bongrand (2008) reported a fatal ewe’s milk-induced anaphylaxis on a 8 years ancient boy.

Generally chidren had severe allergic reactions, including anaphylaxis, a few minutes after consumption of goats’ or sheeps’ milk products but tolerated cows’ milk products. Clinical observations, skin prick testing and immunoglobulin IgE-binding studies confirmed the diagnosis of goat’s or sheeps’ milk allergy without associated cows’ milk allergy.

The characteristics of goat’s or sheep’s milk allergy differ from those of cow’s milk allergy because it affects older children and appears later (around 6 years).

However, Umpiérrez et al (1999) reported on a two years ancient girl who experienced allergic reactions after eating goat cheese and after touching goat and sheep cheese, but not after consuming cow milk. In the series of Bidat (2003) 19% of the children regularly consumed goats’ milk while previously allergic to cows’ milk.

The major allergenic proteins in cow’s milk are ß-lactoglobulin, a-lactalbumin, serum albumin and caseins (Räsänen et al, 1992). However, it has been suggested that caseins may be the main allergen both in children (Kohno et al, 1994) and adults (Stöger et al, 1993).

In their series of infants with goat’s or sheep’s milk allergy, Ah-Leung et al (2006) demonstrated by enzyme allergosorbent tests that the casein fractions and not the whey proteins were involved. Cow’s milk caseins were not at every or poorly recognized by the patient’s IgE, while aS1-, aS2- and ß-caseins from goat’s or sheep’s milk were recognized with high specificity and affinity. Unlike what is observed in cow’s milk allergy, k-casein was not recognized by the IgE antibodies.

A similar predominant role of caseins has been observed by Umpiérrez et al (1999). However, Tavares et al (2007) reported that a non-casein 14 kDa protein (probably a-lactalbunin) was involved for a 27 years ancient female patient exhibiting goats’ milk allergy not associated to cows’ milk allergy.

Due to severity of the anaphylactic reaction of patients with allergy to caprine and ovine milk, Boissieu and Dupont (2008) recommend to avoid eating cheese made from caprine or ovine milk (Feta, Roquefort, Ossau Iraty, Etorky etc.) and cheese not stored at home (restaurant, buffet, friends etc.).

Care must be taken to present cheese made from bovine milk and cheese made from caprine or ovine cheese in separate plates to avoid the frequently observed cross-contaminations. Moreover, allergic patients must be circunspect with numerous foods which can contain goat’s or sheep’s dairy proteins such as pizza, toasted cheese, Moussaka etc.

In this new context, the agroalimentary industry must now implement analytical methods to detect goat’s or sheep’s milk in bovine dairy products and in agro-alimentary products with added milk proteins. Most of the published analytical methods own been developed for the detection of bovine milk in the more expensive caprine or ovine milks.

The detection limits are around 1% contamination since a lower percentage is not of economical interest. Now, the detection of potentially allergenic goat’s milk or sheep’s milk in cow’s milk must be more sensitive, below to 10-100 ppm, in order to guarantee the allergenic safety of the cow milk dairy products.


References

Ah-Leung S, Bernard H, Bidat E et al, 2006. Allergy to goat and sheep milk without allergy to cow’s milk. Allergy 61: 1358–65

Attou D, Caherec A, Bensakhria S et al, 2005. Allergie aux laits de chèvre et de brebis sans allergie associée au lait de vache. Rev Fr Allergol Immunol Clin 5: 601–607

Bellioni-Businco B, Paganelli R, Lucenti P, Giampietro PG, Perborn H, Businco L, 1999.

Allergenicity of goat’s milk in children with cow’s milk allergy. J Allergy Clin Immunol, 103: 1191-1194

Bidat E, Rancé F, Baranes T et al, 2003. L’allergie au lait de chèvre ou de brebis chez l’enfant, sans allergie associée au lait de vache. Rev Fr Allergol 43: 273-277

Boissieu D, Dupont C, 2008. Allergy to goat and sheep milk without allergy to cow’s milk. Arch Pediatr 15: 349-351

Calvani Jr M, Alessandri C, 1998. Anaphylaxis to sheep’s milk cheese in a kid unaffected by cow’s milk protein allergy. Eur J Pediatr 157: 17–19

Kohno Y, Honna K, Saito K et al, 1994. Preferential recognition of primary protein structures of casein by IgG and IgE antibodies of patients with milk allergy.

Ann Allergy 7: 419-422

Lamblin C, Bourrier T, Orlando JP et al, 2001. Allergie aux laits de chêvre et de brebis sans allergie associée au lait de vache. Rev Fr Allergol Immunol Clin 41: 165–168

Martins P, Borrego LM, Pires G, Pinto PL, Afonso AR, Rosado-Pinto J, 2005. Sheep and goat’s milk allergy—a case study. Allergy 60: 129-130

Muñoz-Martín T, de la Hoz Caballer B, Marañón Lizana F, González Mendiola R, Prieto Montaño P, Sánchez Cano M, 2004.

Selective allergy to sheep’s and goat’s milk proteins. Allergol Immunopathol 32: 39-42

Orlando JP, Breton-Bouveyron A, 2000. Anaphylactoid reaction to goat’s milk. Allerg Immunol 32: 231-232

Paty E, Chedevergne F, Scheinmann P et al, 2003. Allergie au lait de chèvre et de brebis sans allergie associée au lait de vache. Rev Fr Allergol 43: 455-462

Räsänen L, Lehto M, Reumala T, 1992. Diagnostic worth of skin and laboratory tests in cow’s milk allergy/intolerance. Clin Exp Allergy 22: 385-390

Stöger P, Wüthrich B, 1993. Type I allergy to cow milk proteins in adults.

What is cross reactivity in food allergies

A retrospective study of 34 adult milk- and cheese-allergic patients. Int Arch Allergy Immunol 102: 399-407

Restani P, 2004 Goat milk allergenicity. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 39: 323-324

Tavares B, Pereira C, Rodrigues F, Loureiro G, Chieira C, 2007. Goat’s milk allergy. Allergol Immunopathol 35: 113-116

Umpiérrez A, Quirce S, Marañón F, Cuesta J, García-Villamuza Y, Lahoz C, Sastre J, 1999. Allergy to goat and sheep cheese with excellent tolerance to cow cheese.

Clin Exp Allergy 29: 1064-1068

Vitte J, Bongrand P, 2008. Fatal ewe’s milk-induced anaphylaxis: laboratory work-up. Arch Pédiatr 15: 1300-1303

Wüthrich B, Johansson SG, 1995. Allergy to cheese produced from sheep’s and goat’s milk but not to cheese produced from cow’s milk. J Allergy Clin Immunol 96: 270–273

Links to Pfam

Family-defining Pfam domains (at least one of these domains is present in each family member):

Pfam domain Pfam clan
PF00407 Pathogenesis-related protein Bet v I family CL0209 Bet V 1 love

Non-IgE Mediated Food Allergies

Most symptoms of non-IgE mediated food allergies involve the digestive tract.

Symptoms may be vomiting and diarrhea. The symptoms can take longer to develop and may final longer than IgE mediated allergy symptoms. Sometimes, a reaction to a food allergen occurs up 3 days after eating the food allergen.

When an allergic reaction occurs with this type of allergy, epinephrine is generally not needed. In general, the best way to treat these allergies is to stay away from the food that causes the reaction. Under are examples of conditions related to non-IgE mediated food allergies.

Not every children who react to a certain food own an allergy.

They may own food intolerance. Examples are lactose intolerance, gluten intolerance, sulfite sensitivity or dye sensitivity. Staying away from these foods is the best way to avoid a reaction. Your child’s doctor may propose other steps to prevent a reaction. If your kid has any food allergy symptoms, see your child’s doctor or allergist. Only a doctor can properly diagnose whether your kid has an IgE- or non-IgE food allergy. Both can be present in some children.

Eosinophilic Esophagitis (EoE)

Eosinophilic (ee-uh-sin-uh-fil-ik) esophagitis is an inflamed esophagus. The esophagus is a tube from the throat to the stomach.

An allergy to a food can cause this condition.

With EoE, swallowing food can be hard and painful. Symptoms in infants and toddlers are irritability, problems with eating and poor weight acquire. Older children may own reflux, vomiting, stomach pain, chest pain and a feeling love food is “stuck” in their throat. The symptoms can happen days or even weeks after eating a food allergen.

EoE is treated by special diets that remove the foods that are causing the condition. Medication may also be used to reduce inflammation.

Food Protein-Induced Enterocolitis Syndrome (FPIES)

FPIES is another type of food allergy.

It most often affects young infants. Symptoms generally don’t appear for two or more hours. Symptoms include vomiting, which starts about 2 hours or later after eating the food causing the condition. This condition can also cause diarrhea and failure to acquire weight or height. Once the baby stops eating the food causing the allergy, the symptoms go away. Rarely, severe vomiting and diarrhea can happen which can lead to dehydration and even shock. Shock occurs when the body is not getting enough blood flow.

Emergency treatment for severe symptoms must happen correct away at a hospital. The foods most likely to cause a reaction are dairy, soy, rice, oat, barley, green beans, peas, sweet potatoes, squash and poultry.

Allergic Proctocolitis

Allergic proctocolitis is an allergy to formula or breast milk. This condition inflames the lower part of the intestine. It affects infants in their first year of life and generally ends by age 1 year.

The symptoms include blood-streaked, watery and mucus-filled stools. Infants may also develop green stools, diarrhea, vomiting, anemia (low blood count) and fussiness.

When properly diagnosed, symptoms resolve once the offending food(s) are removed from the diet.

Medical review December 2014.

AF069: Bet v 1 family

IgE Mediated Food Allergies

The IgE mediated food allergies most common in infants and children are eggs, milk, peanuts, tree nuts, soy and wheat. The allergic reaction can involve the skin, mouth, eyes, lungs, heart, gut and brain. Some of the symptoms can include:

  1. Stomach pain, vomiting, diarrhea
  2. Swelling of the lips, tongue or throat
  3. Shortness of breath, trouble breathing, wheezing
  4. Skin rash, itching, hives
  5. Feeling love something terrible is about to happen

Sometimes allergy symptoms are mild.

Other times they can be severe. Take every allergic symptoms seriously. Mild and severe symptoms can lead to a serious allergic reaction called anaphylaxis (anna-fih-LACK-sis). This reaction generally involves more than one part of the body and can get worse quick. Anaphylaxis must be treated correct away to provide the best chance for improvement and prevent serious, potentially life-threatening complications.

Treat anaphylaxis with epinephrine. This medicine is safe and comes in an easy-to-use device called an auto-injector. You can’t rely on antihistamines to treat anaphylaxis. The symptoms of an anaphylactic reaction happen shortly after contact with an allergen.

In some individuals, there may be a delay of two to three hours before symptoms first appear.

Cross-Reactivity and Oral Allergy Syndrome

Having an IgE mediated allergy to one food can mean your kid is allergic to similar foods. For example, if your kid is allergic to shrimp, he or she may be allergic to other types of shellfish, such as crab or crayfish. Or if your kid is allergic to cow’s milk, he or she may also be allergic to goat’s and sheep’s milk. The reaction between diverse foods is called cross-reactivity. This happens when proteins in one food are similar to the proteins in another food.

Cross-reactivity also can happen between latex and certain foods.

For example, a kid who has an allergy to latex may also own an allergy to bananas, avocados, kiwis or chestnuts.

Some people who own allergies to pollens, such as ragweed and grasses, may also be allergic to some foods. Proteins in the pollens are love the proteins in some fruits and vegetables. So, if your kid is allergic to ragweed, he or she may own an allergic reaction to melons and bananas. That’s because the protein in ragweed looks love the proteins in melons and bananas.

This condition is oral allergy syndrome.

Symptoms of an oral allergy syndrome include an itchy mouth, throat or tongue. Symptoms can be more severe and may include hives, shortness of breath and vomiting. Reactions generally happen only when someone eats raw food. In rare cases, reactions can be life-threatening and need epinephrine.

Links to Wikipedia

[top]

If you own updates or corrections for this entry, please contact the site istrator: christian.radauer@meduniwien.ac.at .

Allergy to goat and sheep milk without allergy to cows’ milk


Cows’ milk allergy occurs in 2% to 6% of the baby population, being the most frequent cause of food allergy.

Numerous of these infants cannot tolerate goats’ or sheeps’ milk either (Bellioni-Businjco et al, 1999). Conversely, the goat’s or sheep’s milk allergies that are not associated with allergic cross-reactivity to cow’s milk are rare.

Until 2000 a dozen observations of caprine and ovine milk without allergy to bovine milk own been described (Wüthrich and Johansson,1995; Calvani and Allessandri, 1998; Umpiérrez et al, 1999). Since 2000 more frequent observations own been reported (Orlando and Breton-Bouveyron, 2000; Lamblin et al, 2001; Munoz-Martin et al, 2004; Restany, 2004; Martins, 2005; Attou et al, 2005; Tavarez et al, 2007; Boissieu et Dupont, 2008) and significative series own been described: 18 observations by Paty et al (2003), 31 by Bidat et al (2003) and 28 by Ah-Leung et al (2006).

Recently Vitte and Bongrand (2008) reported a fatal ewe’s milk-induced anaphylaxis on a 8 years ancient boy.

Generally chidren had severe allergic reactions, including anaphylaxis, a few minutes after consumption of goats’ or sheeps’ milk products but tolerated cows’ milk products. Clinical observations, skin prick testing and immunoglobulin IgE-binding studies confirmed the diagnosis of goat’s or sheeps’ milk allergy without associated cows’ milk allergy.

The characteristics of goat’s or sheep’s milk allergy differ from those of cow’s milk allergy because it affects older children and appears later (around 6 years).

However, Umpiérrez et al (1999) reported on a two years ancient girl who experienced allergic reactions after eating goat cheese and after touching goat and sheep cheese, but not after consuming cow milk. In the series of Bidat (2003) 19% of the children regularly consumed goats’ milk while previously allergic to cows’ milk.

The major allergenic proteins in cow’s milk are ß-lactoglobulin, a-lactalbumin, serum albumin and caseins (Räsänen et al, 1992). However, it has been suggested that caseins may be the main allergen both in children (Kohno et al, 1994) and adults (Stöger et al, 1993).

In their series of infants with goat’s or sheep’s milk allergy, Ah-Leung et al (2006) demonstrated by enzyme allergosorbent tests that the casein fractions and not the whey proteins were involved. Cow’s milk caseins were not at every or poorly recognized by the patient’s IgE, while aS1-, aS2- and ß-caseins from goat’s or sheep’s milk were recognized with high specificity and affinity. Unlike what is observed in cow’s milk allergy, k-casein was not recognized by the IgE antibodies. A similar predominant role of caseins has been observed by Umpiérrez et al (1999).

However, Tavares et al (2007) reported that a non-casein 14 kDa protein (probably a-lactalbunin) was involved for a 27 years ancient female patient exhibiting goats’ milk allergy not associated to cows’ milk allergy.

Due to severity of the anaphylactic reaction of patients with allergy to caprine and ovine milk, Boissieu and Dupont (2008) recommend to avoid eating cheese made from caprine or ovine milk (Feta, Roquefort, Ossau Iraty, Etorky etc.) and cheese not stored at home (restaurant, buffet, friends etc.). Care must be taken to present cheese made from bovine milk and cheese made from caprine or ovine cheese in separate plates to avoid the frequently observed cross-contaminations.

Moreover, allergic patients must be circunspect with numerous foods which can contain goat’s or sheep’s dairy proteins such as pizza, toasted cheese, Moussaka etc.

In this new context, the agroalimentary industry must now implement analytical methods to detect goat’s or sheep’s milk in bovine dairy products and in agro-alimentary products with added milk proteins. Most of the published analytical methods own been developed for the detection of bovine milk in the more expensive caprine or ovine milks.

The detection limits are around 1% contamination since a lower percentage is not of economical interest. Now, the detection of potentially allergenic goat’s milk or sheep’s milk in cow’s milk must be more sensitive, below to 10-100 ppm, in order to guarantee the allergenic safety of the cow milk dairy products.


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