What essential oil is good for skin allergies

The name tea tree is used for several plants, mostly from Australia and New Zealand, from the family Myrtaceae, related to the myrtle. The use of the name probably originated from Captain James Cook’s description of one of these shrubs that he used to make an infusion to drink in put of tea.

The commercial tea tree oil industry originated in the 1920s when Arthur Penfold, an Australian, investigated the trade potential of a number of native extracted oils; he reported that tea tree oil had promise, as it exhibited antiseptic properties.[27]

Tea tree oil was first extracted from Melaleuca alternifolia in Australia, and this species remains the most significant commercially.

In the 1970s and 1980s, commercial plantations began to produce large quantities of tea tree oil from Melaleuca alternifolia. Numerous of these plantations are located in New South Wales.[27] Since the 1970s and 80s, the industry has expanded to include several other species for their extracted oil: Melaleuca armillaris and Melaleuca styphelioides in Tunisia and Egypt; Melaleuca leucadendra in Egypt, Malaysia and Vietnam; Melaleuca acuminata in Tunisia; Melaleuca ericifolia in Egypt; and Melaleuca quinquenervia in the United States. Similar oils can also be produced by water distillation from Melaleuca linariifolia and Melaleuca dissitiflora.[29] Whereas the availability and nonproprietary nature of tea tree oil would make it – if proved effective – particularly well-suited to a disease love scabies that affects poor people disproportionately, those same characteristics decrease corporate interest in its development and validation.[5]

According to Allied Market Research, «the global tea tree oil market size was valued at $38.8 million in 2017 and is projected to reach $59.5 million by 2025».[2]


Research directions

Tea tree oil is under investigation to see whether it might assist in controlling Demodex mites and associated rosacea.

As of 2018[update] no clinical trials had been conducted.[30]


References

  • ^Villar, D; Knight, MJ; Hansen, SR; Buck, WB (April 1994). «Toxicity of melaleuca oil and related essential oils applied topically on dogs and cats». Veterinary and Human Toxicology. 36 (2): 139–42. PMID 8197716.
  • ^«Gynecomastia». Endocrine Society. May 2018.
  • ^Sávia Perina Portilho Falci (July 2015).

    «Antimicrobial activity of Melaleuca sp. oil against clinical isolates of antibiotics resistant Staphylococcus aureus». Acta Cirurgica Brasileira. 30 (7): 401–6. doi:10.1590/S0102-865020150060000005. PMID 26108028.

  • ^ ab«Tea Tree Oil». National Capital Poison Middle. Retrieved 4 December 2013.
  • ^«Melaleucae aetheroleum». Committee on Herbal Medicinal Products. 24 November 2014.
  • ^ abHammer, K; Carson, C; Riley, T; Nielsen, J (2006).

    What essential oil is excellent for skin allergies

    «A review of the toxicity of Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree) oil». Food and Chemical Toxicology. 44 (5): 616–25. doi:10.1016/j.fct.2005.09.001. PMID 16243420.

  • ^Eisenhower, Christine; Farrington, Elizabeth Anne (2012). «Advancements in the Treatment of Head Lice in Pediatrics». Journal of Pediatric Health Care. 26 (6): 451–61, quiz 462–4. doi:10.1016/j.pedhc.2012.05.004. PMID 23099312.
  • ^«Tea Tree Oil Toxicity». Veterinarywatch. Archived from the original on January 11, 2013.

    Retrieved December 13, 2012.

  • ^«Tea Tree Oil and Dogs, Tea Tree Oil and Cats». Petpoisonhelpline.com. Retrieved December 13, 2012.
  • ^Lee KA, Harnett JE, Cairns R (2019). «Essential oil exposures in Australia: analysis of cases reported to the NSW Poisons Information Centre». Medical Journal of Australia. doi:10.5694/mja2.50403. ISSN 0025-729X. Lay summary.
  • ^Halteh P, Scher RK, Lipner SR (2016). «Over-the-counter and natural remedies for onychomycosis: do they really work?». Cutis. 98 (5): E16–E25. PMID 28040821.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  • ^de Groot AC, Schmidt E (2016).

    «Tea tree oil: contact allergy and chemical composition». Contact Dermatitis (Review). 75 (3): 129–43. doi:10.1111/cod.12591. PMID 27173437.

  • ^«Chemicals in lavender and tea tree oil appear to be hormone disruptors». Endocrine Society. 19 March 2018.
  • ^«The Effectiveness and Safety of Australian Tea Tree Oil».

    What essential oil is excellent for skin allergies

    Australian Government — Rural Industries and Development Corporation. Archived from the original on November 1, 2018. Retrieved 26 February 2014.

  • ^ abcRussell J, Rovere A, eds. (2009). «Tea Tree Oil».

    What essential oil is excellent for skin allergies

    American Cancer Society Finish Guide to Complementary and Alternative Cancer Therapies (2nd ed.). American Cancer Society.

    What essential oil is excellent for skin allergies

    ISBN .CS1 maint: uses editors parameter (link)

  • ^ ab«Tea Tree Oil Market Outlook – 2025». Allied Market Research. May 2019.
  • ^ abcde«Essential oil of Melaleuca, terpene-4-ol (tea tree oil): ISO 4730: 2017 (E)». International Organization for Standardization (ISO), Geneva, Switzerland.

    2017. Retrieved 2 February 2019.

  • ^ abcdeThomas, J; Carson, C. F; Peterson, G. M; Walton, S. F; Hammer, K. A; Naunton, M; Davey, R. C; Spelman, T; Dettwiller, P; Kyle, G; Cooper, G.

    What essential oil is excellent for skin allergies

    M; Baby, K. E (2016). «Therapeutic Potential of Tea Tree Oil for Scabies». The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene (Review). 94 (2): 258–266. doi:10.4269/ajtmh.14-0515. PMC 4751955. PMID 26787146.

  • ^Billee Sharp (18 September 2013). Lemons and Lavender: The Eco Guide to Better Homekeeping. Cleis Press. pp. 43–. ISBN .
  • ^Aberer, W (January 2008).

    «Contact allergy and medicinal herbs». Journal der Deutschen Dermatologischen Gesellschaft. 6 (1): 15–24. doi:10.1111/j.1610-0387.2007.06425.x. PMID 17919303.

  • ^ abcPazyar, N; Yaghoobi, R; Bagherani, N; Kazerouni, A (July 2013). «A review of applications of tea tree oil in dermatology». International Journal of Dermatology.

    52 (7): 784–90. doi:10.1111/j.1365-4632.2012.05654.x. PMID 22998411.

  • ^«Tea tree oil». Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research, Mayo Clinic. 2017. Retrieved 2 December 2017.
  • ^«Breast enlargement in males». Medline Plus. US National Library of Medicine. Retrieved 15 November 2015.
  • ^Cao H, Yang G, Wang Y, Liu JP, Smith CA, Luo H, Liu Y (January 2015). «Complementary therapies for acne vulgaris». Cochrane Database Syst Rev (Systematic Review). 1: CD009436. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD009436.pub2. PMC 4486007. PMID 25597924.
  • ^ abc«Opinion on Tea tree oil»(PDF).

    SCCP/1155/08 Scientific Committee on Consumer Products. 16 December 2008.

  • ^«Head lice and nits». National Health Service. 10 January 2018.
  • ^ abcdef«Tea tree oil». National Middle for Complementary and Integrative Health, US National Institutes of Health. 2011-11-09. Retrieved 30 May 2016.
  • ^ abcCarson, C. F.; Hammer, K. A.; Riley, T. V. (2006). «Melaleuca alternifolia (Tea Tree) Oil: A Review of Antimicrobial and Other Medicinal Properties».

    Clinical Microbiology Reviews. 19 (1): 50–62. doi:10.1128/CMR.19.1.50-62.2006. PMC 1360273. PMID 16418522.

  • ^Lam NS, Endless XX, Griffin RC, Chen MK, Doery JC (October 2018). «Can the tea tree oil (Australian native plant: Melaleuca alternifolia Cheel) be an alternative treatment for human demodicosis on skin?». Parasitology (Review). 145 (12): 1510–1520. doi:10.1017/S0031182018000495. PMID 29667560.

Origin of this essential oil, the tea tree, Melaleuca alternifolia.

Growing popularity of products containing essential oils has led to a rise in reports of ACD linked to use of these products. Essential oils are aromatic substances of variable composition typically extracted from plants and animals. They are frequently used in cosmetics and perfumes [7]. Essential oils are, in part, made up of sesquiterpenes, a diverse group of compounds naturally found in insects and a number of plant families, including Compositae plants.

What essential oil is excellent for skin allergies

Sesquiterpenes represent a known cause of allergic reactions [8]. Although the exact frequency of these reactions is not known, ACD attributed to essential oils is disproportionately higher in certain occupational groups, including massage and aroma therapists, cosmetics manufacturers, hairdressers, and beauticians [7].

Eucalyptus oil

Eucalyptus oil has been used medicinally for over 100 years for its antibacterial, antiviral, antifungal, and anti-inflammatory properties [19].

It is found in topical antiseptics, soaps, mouthwashes, balms, and inhalants for colds and the flu and is now increasingly used in body creams, shower gels, and facial cleansers [19]. Topically applied eucalyptus oil is generally regarded as safe, but rare reports of ACD caused by eucalyptus oil do exist and point to its main constituent, 1,8-cineole, as the causative allergen [19, 20]. Patch-testing data using 2 % eucalyptus oil in petrolatum indicate a 0.24–1.5 % prevalence of positive reactions [21, 22, 23].

Lavender oil

Lavender has been utilized for centuries as a therapeutic and cosmetic agent. Its essential oil remains a favorite ingredient in personal care and household products [15].

What essential oil is excellent for skin allergies

Despite its potential therapeutic uses, lavender oil has been associated with ACD. In one cross-sectional study of 1483 Japanese patients suspected of having contact dermatitis secondary to cosmetic use, patch-testing data collected over a 9-year period showed an increase in positive reaction rates to lavender from 1.1 % in 1990 to 13.9 % in 1998 [15]. ACD due to lavender often occurs in massage therapists who protest a high prevalence of hand dermatitis from oils, lotions, and creams due to occupational exposure [16, 17].

The main two components of lavender essential oil are linalyl acetate and linalool, constituting 40 and 50 % of natural lavender oil, respectively [18•].

Both are feeble allergens and sensitizers in pure form [17]. Linalyl acetate is a perfume terpene frequently found in cosmetic and household products and is hypothesized to act as a prehapten or a low-sensitizing compound that transforms into a hapten via oxidation following exposure to air [18•]. A patch-testing study of 1717 patients conducted by Hagvall et al. resulted in 2.2 % positive reactions to oxidized linalyl acetate [18•]. Thus, in the oxidized form, linalyl acetate may be a more prevalent perfume allergen than previously acknowledged [18•].

Peppermint oil

Peppermint oil, extracted from Mentha piperita, is a perennial herb in the Labiatae family used as a flavoring agent and perfume in lip balms and moisturizers and can also be found in mouthwash, toothpaste, dental floss, breath fresheners, chewing gum, and teas [6•, 13, 14].

Topical preparations of peppermint oil own been used to relieve pruritus and inflammation. Constituents of peppermint oil include menthol, menthone, carvone, pulegone, and limonene, the final of which is gaining increasing recognition as an emerging allergen [6•]. ACD to peppermint oil has been reported with direct application to skin [13]. A 2010 case series published by Tran et al. examined four patients with ACD of the lips and perioral area following exposure to a Burt’s Bees lip balm product containing peppermint oil. Patch testing confirmed peppermint oil as the likely source of ACD in every four individuals [14].

As a new addition to the NACDG standard screening series of 70 allergens (allergEAZE; SmartPractice, Calgary, Canada) in 2009 [6•], 2 % Mentha piperita oil in petrolatum showed a 0.4 % prevalence of positive patch test reactions in results collected as part of the 2011–2012 NACDG patch-testing data [12••].

Tea tree oil

Tea tree oil, extracted from the leaves of the Melaleuca alternifolia tree, is known for its antimicrobial and therapeutic effects [6•].

It is now widely used in facial moisturizers, shampoos, massage oils, aromatherapy candles, compresses, and detergents [6•]. Several studies own reported increasing prevalence of positive reactions to tea tree oil [9, 10, 11]. Data from recent North American Contact Dermatitis Group (NACDG) patch test results indicate a 0.9 % prevalence of positive patch test reactions to tea tree oil [12••]. The allergen most likely responsible for the sensitizing property of tea tree oil is terpinen-4-ol, also responsible for its beneficial antimicrobial effects [6•].

Ylang-ylang oil

Ylang-ylang oil, derived from the flowers of the Cananga odorata tree, is found in a wide variety of household items, including scented candles and soaps [24].

Because it is purported to decrease anxiety and own a soothing effect on the skin, it has become a favorite ingredient in cosmetic products love moisturizing creams, massage oils, and perfumes. Ylang-ylang oil is a known cause of ACD and contains linalool, geraniol derivatives, and isoeugenol. Isoeugenol is the component responsible for the sensitizing capacity of ylang-ylang oil [24]. Frequency of allergy to ylang-ylang oil has decreased in Japan since the reduction of the maximum concentration of isoeugenol in cosmetic products by the International Perfume Association [24, 25].

Among the essential oils, ylang-ylang oil was found to be the most likely to illicit a positive reaction, according to patch-testing data from the Information Network of Departments of Dermatology, a contact allergy surveillance network in Germany, Switzerland, and Austria [22].

Occupational sensitization to ylang-ylang oil is of higher risk for manicurists, hairdressers, aromatherapists, and cosmetics manufacturers [24].

Origin of this essential oil, the tea tree, Melaleuca alternifolia.

Growing popularity of products containing essential oils has led to a rise in reports of ACD linked to use of these products. Essential oils are aromatic substances of variable composition typically extracted from plants and animals. They are frequently used in cosmetics and perfumes [7]. Essential oils are, in part, made up of sesquiterpenes, a diverse group of compounds naturally found in insects and a number of plant families, including Compositae plants.

Sesquiterpenes represent a known cause of allergic reactions [8]. Although the exact frequency of these reactions is not known, ACD attributed to essential oils is disproportionately higher in certain occupational groups, including massage and aroma therapists, cosmetics manufacturers, hairdressers, and beauticians [7].

Eucalyptus oil

Eucalyptus oil has been used medicinally for over 100 years for its antibacterial, antiviral, antifungal, and anti-inflammatory properties [19]. It is found in topical antiseptics, soaps, mouthwashes, balms, and inhalants for colds and the flu and is now increasingly used in body creams, shower gels, and facial cleansers [19].

Topically applied eucalyptus oil is generally regarded as safe, but rare reports of ACD caused by eucalyptus oil do exist and point to its main constituent, 1,8-cineole, as the causative allergen [19, 20]. Patch-testing data using 2 % eucalyptus oil in petrolatum indicate a 0.24–1.5 % prevalence of positive reactions [21, 22, 23].

Lavender oil

Lavender has been utilized for centuries as a therapeutic and cosmetic agent. Its essential oil remains a favorite ingredient in personal care and household products [15]. Despite its potential therapeutic uses, lavender oil has been associated with ACD.

In one cross-sectional study of 1483 Japanese patients suspected of having contact dermatitis secondary to cosmetic use, patch-testing data collected over a 9-year period showed an increase in positive reaction rates to lavender from 1.1 % in 1990 to 13.9 % in 1998 [15]. ACD due to lavender often occurs in massage therapists who protest a high prevalence of hand dermatitis from oils, lotions, and creams due to occupational exposure [16, 17].

The main two components of lavender essential oil are linalyl acetate and linalool, constituting 40 and 50 % of natural lavender oil, respectively [18•]. Both are feeble allergens and sensitizers in pure form [17].

Linalyl acetate is a perfume terpene frequently found in cosmetic and household products and is hypothesized to act as a prehapten or a low-sensitizing compound that transforms into a hapten via oxidation following exposure to air [18•]. A patch-testing study of 1717 patients conducted by Hagvall et al. resulted in 2.2 % positive reactions to oxidized linalyl acetate [18•]. Thus, in the oxidized form, linalyl acetate may be a more prevalent perfume allergen than previously acknowledged [18•].

Peppermint oil

Peppermint oil, extracted from Mentha piperita, is a perennial herb in the Labiatae family used as a flavoring agent and perfume in lip balms and moisturizers and can also be found in mouthwash, toothpaste, dental floss, breath fresheners, chewing gum, and teas [6•, 13, 14].

Topical preparations of peppermint oil own been used to relieve pruritus and inflammation. Constituents of peppermint oil include menthol, menthone, carvone, pulegone, and limonene, the final of which is gaining increasing recognition as an emerging allergen [6•]. ACD to peppermint oil has been reported with direct application to skin [13]. A 2010 case series published by Tran et al. examined four patients with ACD of the lips and perioral area following exposure to a Burt’s Bees lip balm product containing peppermint oil. Patch testing confirmed peppermint oil as the likely source of ACD in every four individuals [14].

As a new addition to the NACDG standard screening series of 70 allergens (allergEAZE; SmartPractice, Calgary, Canada) in 2009 [6•], 2 % Mentha piperita oil in petrolatum showed a 0.4 % prevalence of positive patch test reactions in results collected as part of the 2011–2012 NACDG patch-testing data [12••].

Tea tree oil

Tea tree oil, extracted from the leaves of the Melaleuca alternifolia tree, is known for its antimicrobial and therapeutic effects [6•].

It is now widely used in facial moisturizers, shampoos, massage oils, aromatherapy candles, compresses, and detergents [6•].

What essential oil is excellent for skin allergies

Several studies own reported increasing prevalence of positive reactions to tea tree oil [9, 10, 11]. Data from recent North American Contact Dermatitis Group (NACDG) patch test results indicate a 0.9 % prevalence of positive patch test reactions to tea tree oil [12••]. The allergen most likely responsible for the sensitizing property of tea tree oil is terpinen-4-ol, also responsible for its beneficial antimicrobial effects [6•].

Ylang-ylang oil

Ylang-ylang oil, derived from the flowers of the Cananga odorata tree, is found in a wide variety of household items, including scented candles and soaps [24]. Because it is purported to decrease anxiety and own a soothing effect on the skin, it has become a favorite ingredient in cosmetic products love moisturizing creams, massage oils, and perfumes.

Ylang-ylang oil is a known cause of ACD and contains linalool, geraniol derivatives, and isoeugenol. Isoeugenol is the component responsible for the sensitizing capacity of ylang-ylang oil [24]. Frequency of allergy to ylang-ylang oil has decreased in Japan since the reduction of the maximum concentration of isoeugenol in cosmetic products by the International Perfume Association [24, 25].

Among the essential oils, ylang-ylang oil was found to be the most likely to illicit a positive reaction, according to patch-testing data from the Information Network of Departments of Dermatology, a contact allergy surveillance network in Germany, Switzerland, and Austria [22].

Occupational sensitization to ylang-ylang oil is of higher risk for manicurists, hairdressers, aromatherapists, and cosmetics manufacturers [24].


Safety

Tea tree oil is poisonous when taken internally.[4][7] It may cause drowsiness, confusion, hallucinations, coma, unsteadiness, weakness, vomiting, diarrhea, nausea, blood cell abnormalities, and severe rashes. It should be kept away from pets and children.[7] Tea tree oil should not be used in or around the mouth.[4][8]

Application of tea tree oil to the skin can cause an allergic reaction – tea tree oil has caused more documented allergic reactions than any other form of essential oil.

The potential for causing an allergic reaction increases as the oil ages and its chemical composition changes.[16] Adverse effects include skin irritation, allergic contact dermatitis, systemic contact dermatitis, linear immunoglobulin A disease, erythema multiforme love reactions, and systemic hypersensitivity reactions.[6][17] Allergic reactions may be due to the various oxidation products that are formed by exposure of the oil to light and/or air.[17][18] Consequently, oxidized tea tree oil should not be used.[19]

In Australia tea tree oil is one of the numerous essential oils that own been increasingly causing cases of poisoning, mostly of children.

In the period 2014-2018 there were 749 reported cases in New South Wales, accounting for 17% of essential oil poisoning incidents.[20]

Hormonal effects

Tea tree oil is potentially a risk for causing abnormal breast enlargement in men.[21][22] A 2018 study by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences found four of the constituent chemicals (eucalyptol, 4-terpineol, dipentene and alpha-terpineol) are endocrine disruptors, raising concerns of potential environmental health impact from the oil.[23]

Toxicity in animals

In dogs and cats, death[24][25] or transient signs of toxicity (lasting 2 to 3 days), such as lethargy, weakness, incoordination and muscle tremors, own been reported after external application at high doses.[26]

As a test of toxicity by oral intake, the median lethal dose (LD50) in rats is 1.9–2.4 ml/kg.[27]


Uses

Tea tree oil has been used as a traditional herbal medicine in the belief it treats acne, nail fungus, or athlete’s foot, with little evidence to support these uses.[4][10] In a 2015 Cochrane systematic review, the only trial comparing it to placebo for acne found low-quality evidence of benefit.[11]

According to the Committee on Herbal Medicinal Products (CHMP) of the European Medicines Agency, traditional usage suggests that tea tree oil is a plausible treatment for «small superficial wounds, insect bites and little boils», that it may assist reduce itching in minor cases of athlete’s foot, and assist with mild inflammation of the mouth lining.[12] The CHMP tell tea tree oil products should not be used on people under 12 years of age.

Tea tree oil is not recommended for treating nail fungus, as it is not effective.[13] It is not recommended for treating head lice in children because its effectiveness and safety has not been established and it could cause skin irritation or allergic reactions.[14][15]


Composition and characteristics

Tea tree oil is defined by the International Standard ISO 4730 («Oil of Melaleuca, terpinen-4-ol type»), containing terpinen-4-ol, γ-terpinene, and α-terpinene as about 70% to 90% of whole oil, while ρ-cymene, terpinolene, α-terpineol, and α-pinene collectively account for some 15% of the oil (table, right).[1][3][5] The oil has been described as colorless to pale yellow[1] having a unused, camphor-like smell.[28]

Tea tree oil products contain various phytochemicals among which terpinen-4-ol is the major component.[1][3] Adverse reactions decrease with lower 1,8-cineole content.[6]


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