What does flea allergy dermatitis look like on dogs

Parasites can infect your pet any time of year. While external parasites, such as fleas and ticks, may be less of a problem during certain times of the year, depending on where you live, internal parasites (worms) can be present year-round. That’s why it’s significant to consult with your veterinarian to implement a yearround parasite control program.


Common questions about fleas and ticks

Why should I control parasites for my pet year-round?

Due to the large number of internal and external parasites and the high risk of pet infection, controlling parasites year-round is the most dependable way to ensure the highest level of health for your pet and well-being of your family.

Year-round prevention is the most effective way to control cat and dog parasites and the diseases they can carry. People ponder their pets are safe during the colder months, but pets are susceptible to flea and tick infections at every times of the year. And regardless of the weather, numerous of these pests can even survive in your home – in carpeting, on furniture and in the bedroom.

Do fleas on my pet present a health risk to my family?

Yes. Fleas can carry and transmit several potential illnesses of importance to humans, including typhus and plague, and can transmit “cat scratch disease” (infection with Bartonella) among cats who can then spread the disease to humans.

Additionally, fleas serve as an intermediate host for tapeworms, which can infect your pet and occasionally humans.

What human-health problems are associated with ticks?

Ticks transmit a large number of diseases in North America. These diseases include Lyme disease, Rocky Mountain spotted fever, relapsing fever, ehrlichiosis, tularemia and tick paralysis. It is significant for the health of your pet, as well as the safety of your family, to include ticks in your pet’s year-round parasite control program.

What if my cat never goes outside?

Indoor cats own less chance of acquiring fleas and ticks, but they should be regularly checked, just in case.

Other pets and/or family members can be hosts for fleas and ticks (on pant cuffs or socks) and bring them home to your indoor cat.



1
, —> ,
A titre de propriétaires d’un animal de compagnie, c’est notre devoir de protège notre animal contre le danger.

2
, —> ,
Mais parfois, ce sont les plus petits risques, ceux qu’on néglige, qui s’avèrent les plus problématiques.

3
, —> ,
Au Canada, les tiques et les puces représentent une source de préoccupation croissante.

4
, —> ,
Elles sont devenues une menace importante pour nos animaux.

5
, —> ,
Saviez-vous qu’une seule puce peut piquer jusqu’à fois par jour?

6
, —> ,
Et que le tiques peuvent transmettre des maladies potentiellement mortelles pour les animaux et les humains, comme la maladie de Lyme?

7
, —> ,
Qui l’eut cru?

Ces minuscules parasites peuvent nous causer de gros problèmes!

8
, —> ,
La bonne nouvelle, c’est qu’il est possible de protéger nos animaux de compagnie.

9
, —> ,
En effet, on trouve chez le vétérinaire différents produits que l’on peut regrouper en deux catégories :

10
, —> ,
Les produits a action générale, qui sont pris par voie orale.

11
, —> ,
Et les produits a action non-générale, qui sont appliques directement sur la peau.

12
, —> ,
Les produits a action générale, pris par voie orale, sont souvent offerts sous forme de comprimes a croquer.

13
, —> ,
Ca semble intéressant, non?

Toutefois, c’est médicaments pénètrent dans la circulation sanguine de l’animal.

14
, —> ,
Et donc, lorsqu’une puce ou une tique atterrit sur votre animal, elle DOIT absolument piquer et se nourrir de sang pour que le médicament puisse faire son effet.

15
, —> ,
En fait, pour être tue, le parasite doit continuer a se nourrir jusqu’à ce qu’il ait ingéré suffisamment de médicament qui circule dans le sang de votre animal.

16
, —> ,
Votre animal demeure donc vulnérable, puisque des maladies dangereuses peuvent être transmises par la piqure.

17
, —> ,
Pour leur part, les produits topiques a action non générale agissent sur la peau de l’animal.

18
, —> ,
Grace a ces produits, lorsque les puces ou les tiques entrant en contact avec la peau de votre animal, elles perdent toute coordination, ce qui laisse au médicaments le temps d’agir et de tuer les parasites.

19
, —> ,
Ces produits réduisent considérablement la capacité des puces et des tiques a piquer votre animal, a s’y agripper et a se nourrir de son sang.

Ils diminuent donc également le risque de transmission de maladies.

20
, —> ,
Avec les produits topiques a action non-générale, les puces et les tiques n’ont pas besoin de piquer pour être tuées.

21
, —> ,
Vous aimez vos animaux et vous voulez les protéger.

22
, —> ,
C’est donc logique d’utiliser des produits qui agissent au contact pour tuer les puces et les tiques.

23
, —> ,
Demande a votre vétérinaire si la cure antipiqure convient a votre animal.

24
, —> ,
Cure antipiqure.

Author: Casey Stepnik, DVM, DACVD
(Board-Certified Dermatologists)

Flea allergy dermatitis!

Thats impossible! Ive NEVER seen a flea on my pet! This is a common response from owners whose pets own just been diagnosed with this hypersensitivity reaction. Flea allergy dermatitis (FAD) is not a flea infestation. Likely you nor your vet own ever seen evidence of fleas on your pet. Surprising for most owners to hear, every healthy pet will own intermittent flea exposure, no matter where you live. In fact, intermittent exposure to fleas rather than true flea infestation contributes to the development of flea allergy dermatitis.

The most common flea to cause problems for the dog and cat is the flea, Ctenocephalides felis.

Fleas are not just carried on dogs and cats, they are also carried on wildlife, such as raccoons, opossums, foxes, and coyotes, just to name a few. When a flea-carrier passes through your yard, your neighborhood, or areas that you may frequent with your pet (such as dog parks grooming facilities), flea eggs will roll off the animal carrier into the environment. The flea life cycle is completed in the environment with the life cycle arresting in the cocoon stage.

Adult fleas will emerge from their cocoons when a suitable and preferred host (ie. dog or cat) is nearby. Adult fleas are little, wingless, blood-sucking insects. Adult fleas are capable of biting times per hour! When an adult flea bites a pet, it injects saliva into the skin. Flea saliva contains numerous allergy-producing proteins. Patients that are hypersensitive to these proteins will develop symptoms of flea allergy dermatitis.

So what is flea allergy dermatitis?

FAD is an allergic reaction to flea saliva that occurs in our companion animals after they are bitten by an adult flea. As previously stated, it more commonly develops in pets that are only intermittently exposed to fleas rather than infested. Diagnosis of flea allergy dermatitis is a clinical diagnosis based on compatible history, clinical signs, and response to treatment. Symptoms of FAD may happen year-round with seasonal worsening in the summer and drop. In certain geographic locations, flea allergy dermatitis is the most common allergic reaction diagnosed in both dogs and cats.

Flea allergy dermatitis can develop at any age, in any breed, and any gender. Dogs with flea allergy dermatitis will be extremely itchy on their rump, flanks, tail and groin area.

They may exhibit corn-cobbing behavior which is a quick, nibbling behavior directed at those areas. FAD is the most common trigger for pyotraumatic dermatitis, commonly called boiling spots. Cats with FAD will often develop little crusted lesions, called miliary dermatitis, on their head, neck, rump, thighs, and abdomen. Cats will often overgroom their abdomen to the point of finish hair loss.

What does flea allergy dermatitis glance love on dogs

Successful management of a patient with FAD can be multifaceted and may require the assist of a board-certified veterinary dermatologist.

Clinical features of canine AD

In dogs, clinical signs of an environmental allergy mainly develop between 6 months and 3 years of age [41]. Erythema is a primary lesion of canine AD; pruritus and inflammation can result in self-induced alopecia, excoriation and secondary infections with papules, pustules and crusts [41, 42]. Axillae, ventral abdomen, distal extremities, inner pinnae and periocular, perioral and perianal regions are commonly affected [42].

Otitis externa is present in half of the dogs with AD. Predilection sites differ from breed to breed [43]. Even though dogs can own multiple target organs for hypersensitivities (including gut and respiratory) [44], the contact with environmental allergens predominantly induces skin lesions in this species [45]. There is no evidence for the progression of initially exclusive cutaneous lesions to respiratory signs and systemic hypersensitivities comparable to the “atopic march” in humans [44].

In contrast to the cat, clinical examination in the dog frequently provides clues on the pathogenesis of the pruritus as to the presence of flea bite hypersensitivity versus environmentally-induced atopy or AFR. The previous is characterized by pruritus focused on the dorsal lumbosacral area, ventral abdomen, tailbase and thighs.

1
, —> ,
A titre de propriétaires d’un animal de compagnie, c’est notre devoir de protège notre animal contre le danger.

2
, —> ,
Mais parfois, ce sont les plus petits risques, ceux qu’on néglige, qui s’avèrent les plus problématiques.

3
, —> ,
Au Canada, les tiques et les puces représentent une source de préoccupation croissante.

4
, —> ,
Elles sont devenues une menace importante pour nos animaux.

5
, —> ,
Saviez-vous qu’une seule puce peut piquer jusqu’à fois par jour?

6
, —> ,
Et que le tiques peuvent transmettre des maladies potentiellement mortelles pour les animaux et les humains, comme la maladie de Lyme?

7
, —> ,
Qui l’eut cru?

Ces minuscules parasites peuvent nous causer de gros problèmes!

8
, —> ,
La bonne nouvelle, c’est qu’il est possible de protéger nos animaux de compagnie.

9
, —> ,
En effet, on trouve chez le vétérinaire différents produits que l’on peut regrouper en deux catégories :

10
, —> ,
Les produits a action générale, qui sont pris par voie orale.

11
, —> ,
Et les produits a action non-générale, qui sont appliques directement sur la peau.

12
, —> ,
Les produits a action générale, pris par voie orale, sont souvent offerts sous forme de comprimes a croquer.

13
, —> ,
Ca semble intéressant, non?

Toutefois, c’est médicaments pénètrent dans la circulation sanguine de l’animal.

14
, —> ,
Et donc, lorsqu’une puce ou une tique atterrit sur votre animal, elle DOIT absolument piquer et se nourrir de sang pour que le médicament puisse faire son effet.

15
, —> ,
En fait, pour être tue, le parasite doit continuer a se nourrir jusqu’à ce qu’il ait ingéré suffisamment de médicament qui circule dans le sang de votre animal.

16
, —> ,
Votre animal demeure donc vulnérable, puisque des maladies dangereuses peuvent être transmises par la piqure.

17
, —> ,
Pour leur part, les produits topiques a action non générale agissent sur la peau de l’animal.

18
, —> ,
Grace a ces produits, lorsque les puces ou les tiques entrant en contact avec la peau de votre animal, elles perdent toute coordination, ce qui laisse au médicaments le temps d’agir et de tuer les parasites.

19
, —> ,
Ces produits réduisent considérablement la capacité des puces et des tiques a piquer votre animal, a s’y agripper et a se nourrir de son sang.

Ils diminuent donc également le risque de transmission de maladies.

20
, —> ,
Avec les produits topiques a action non-générale, les puces et les tiques n’ont pas besoin de piquer pour être tuées.

21
, —> ,
Vous aimez vos animaux et vous voulez les protéger.

22
, —> ,
C’est donc logique d’utiliser des produits qui agissent au contact pour tuer les puces et les tiques.

23
, —> ,
Demande a votre vétérinaire si la cure antipiqure convient a votre animal.

24
, —> ,
Cure antipiqure.

Author: Casey Stepnik, DVM, DACVD
(Board-Certified Dermatologists)

Flea allergy dermatitis!

Thats impossible! Ive NEVER seen a flea on my pet! This is a common response from owners whose pets own just been diagnosed with this hypersensitivity reaction. Flea allergy dermatitis (FAD) is not a flea infestation. Likely you nor your vet own ever seen evidence of fleas on your pet. Surprising for most owners to hear, every healthy pet will own intermittent flea exposure, no matter where you live. In fact, intermittent exposure to fleas rather than true flea infestation contributes to the development of flea allergy dermatitis.

The most common flea to cause problems for the dog and cat is the flea, Ctenocephalides felis.

Fleas are not just carried on dogs and cats, they are also carried on wildlife, such as raccoons, opossums, foxes, and coyotes, just to name a few. When a flea-carrier passes through your yard, your neighborhood, or areas that you may frequent with your pet (such as dog parks grooming facilities), flea eggs will roll off the animal carrier into the environment. The flea life cycle is completed in the environment with the life cycle arresting in the cocoon stage. Adult fleas will emerge from their cocoons when a suitable and preferred host (ie.

What does flea allergy dermatitis glance love on dogs

dog or cat) is nearby. Adult fleas are little, wingless, blood-sucking insects. Adult fleas are capable of biting times per hour! When an adult flea bites a pet, it injects saliva into the skin. Flea saliva contains numerous allergy-producing proteins. Patients that are hypersensitive to these proteins will develop symptoms of flea allergy dermatitis.

So what is flea allergy dermatitis? FAD is an allergic reaction to flea saliva that occurs in our companion animals after they are bitten by an adult flea. As previously stated, it more commonly develops in pets that are only intermittently exposed to fleas rather than infested. Diagnosis of flea allergy dermatitis is a clinical diagnosis based on compatible history, clinical signs, and response to treatment.

Symptoms of FAD may happen year-round with seasonal worsening in the summer and drop. In certain geographic locations, flea allergy dermatitis is the most common allergic reaction diagnosed in both dogs and cats.

Flea allergy dermatitis can develop at any age, in any breed, and any gender. Dogs with flea allergy dermatitis will be extremely itchy on their rump, flanks, tail and groin area. They may exhibit corn-cobbing behavior which is a quick, nibbling behavior directed at those areas. FAD is the most common trigger for pyotraumatic dermatitis, commonly called boiling spots. Cats with FAD will often develop little crusted lesions, called miliary dermatitis, on their head, neck, rump, thighs, and abdomen.

Cats will often overgroom their abdomen to the point of finish hair loss.

Successful management of a patient with FAD can be multifaceted and may require the assist of a board-certified veterinary dermatologist.

Clinical features

The following three main allergy categories can be distinguished in cats and dogs: flea (and other insect bite) hypersensitivities, cutaneous adverse food reaction (AFR) and AD due to environmental allergens. The clinical signs in the atopic dog are mostly distinct when compared to the atopic cat.

A short overview of the main clinical features, diagnosis and treatment options in companion animals is given in Table 3.

Clinical features of feline atopy-like dermatitis

The manifestation of specific cutaneous reaction patterns [46] can indicate an allergic primary cause in cats. These involve head and neck pruritus, miliary dermatitis characterised by little crusted papules, self-induced alopecia without any other clinical lesions and eosinophilic lesions such as eosinophilic indolent ulcers, eosinophilic granulomas and eosinophilic plaques [32, 47].

In rare cases, untypical AD symptoms such as plasma-cell pododermatitis, seborrhoea, ceruminous otitis, facial erythema and exfoliative dermatitis were reported [31, 48]. Additionally noncutaneous signs such as sneezing, coughing, conjunctivitis, diarrhoea or vomiting can be presented in affected cats [32]. The disease onset can vary, but commonly it is under 3 years [31, 32], whereas the mean age for AFR is slightly higher (approximately 4–5 years) with a range from 3 months to 11 years [48]. In contrast to the dog, flea-bite hypersensitivity and environmentally induced and AFR glance much more similar in the cat [32].

Treatment of atopic dermatitis in little animals

Therapy selection depends on the pet’s condition, especially the severity of the lesions and degree of pruritus and owner preference and especially in cats—on the ability to medicate.

The therapy needs to be reassessed regularly and adapted to the individual [70]. With the exception of avoidance of the causative allergen [71

Dermatology Fact Sheets

What About Allergies?

Allergies are one of the most common causes of skin problems in dogs, cats and horses. Dogs commonly manifest allergies with itchy skin, licking repetitively at their feet and/or recurrent ear and skin infections. Horse often get hives and can be itchy and cats can lose their hair from over grooming or cause significant self trauma as a result of allergies.

The dermatologists at the Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital work closely with owners to attempt and determine what their pet is allergic to and figure out the best way to tailor therapy for that animal.

This often includes evaluating for any secondary infections of the skin, treating any identified infections, looking for any evidence of external parasite problems and establishing strict ectoparasite control to meet that animal’s lifestyle. Elimination diet trials can determine if an animal has a food allergy and allergy testing via skin tests or blood tests can determine what should go into allergy shots for pets proven to be allergic to pollen and molds in the environment. There are numerous therapies available for managing animals with skin allergies and successful management often involves finding the correct combination of therapies.

This is something that the dermatologists at the clinic are particularly skilled at doing.

Chronic ear infections in dogs and cats may result from ongoing allergies, but there are a number of other factors that can cause chronic ear infections. The Dermatology Service staff use video otoscopy and, if needed, CT scans to better assess the patient with chronic ear disease.

In addition to managing animals with skin allergies, our dermatologists can diagnose and manage auto-immune skin diseases, infectious skin diseases (fungal, bacterial, mycobacterial and viral) and numerous forms of skin cancer. The diagnosis of numerous of these diseases may require that we take a sample from the skin for culture of organisms or a biopsy for analysis by a pathologist.

Diagnosis

A differential diagnosis of AD is based on age of onset, breed and clinical signs.

Other differential diagnoses such as ectoparasites and flea bite hypersensitivity must be ruled out by a consequent ectoparasite control. There is no single test differentiating the atopic from the non-atopic dog or cat [49].

It is not possible to distinguish clinical signs of AD caused by perennial environmental allergens from AFR [16, 50, 51]. Hence an elimination diet followed by a provocation with the original food should be performed in any dog or cat with non-seasonal AD [52], particularly those with a endless history of pruritus and/or gastrointestinal signs [51, 53].

A diet length of 6–8 weeks is recommended, as 90% of the dogs with AFR show some improvement during this time period [54]. Every food can potentially result in an AFR [55]. The most common reported causative allergens for canine AFR are beef, dairy products, chicken, wheat, and lamb [56]. However, soy, corn, egg, pork, fish and rice own also been reported as offending allergens [56]. The food sources most frequently causing AFR in cats were beef, fish, and chicken [58]. Wheat, corn, dairy products, lamb, egg, barley and rabbit were also reported as offending allergens in individual cats. The selection of appropriate protein and carbohydrate sources for an elimination diet can be challenging.

It is significant to use a protein and carbohydrate source, which the dog or cat has never received before [52], thus a detailed food history needs to be obtained by the veterinarian. Multiple studies own shown that various commercial special diets with only one protein source on their label were contaminated and contained substances not listed on the label [57,58,59,60]. Highly hydrolysed food is an alternative, but some dogs allergic to chicken also react to diets containing hydrolysed chicken protein [61].

Therefore a home cooked diet by the owner is considered as diagnostic gold standard [52], where instead of commercial dry or canned food the owner purchases one type of meat and one carbohydrate source and prepares those him-/herself for the pet. As cats are obligate carnivores, the use of a carbohydrate source is optional in the short term and indeed may reduce palatability. Currently there is no dependable alternative test for diagnosing food allergy [62]. There is only poor correlation between IgE- and IgG-antibodies in the serum and clinical food reactions [53, 63]. A patch test can be used for the selection of the elimination diet food source if the food history is unknown.

This test has a poor positive predictability, but a high negative predictability [53]. A lymphocyte proliferation test was capable to detect a type IV hypersensitivity in the blood [64,65,66] by measuring activated T-helper lymphocytes under food allergen stimulation with flow-cytometry [66]. In 49 of 54 AFR dogs this test accurately provided positive reactions against one or more food allergens [66], however this test is not commercially available at this time.

AD in animals is diagnosed by history, clinical examination and exclusion of every differential diagnoses.

Positive reactions are frequently seen in healthy dogs on both intradermal tests [67] and serum tests for allergen-specific IgE [68]. The entire serum IgE concentrations seem to own no clinical relevance in the dog [44]. Once AD is diagnosed in an animal, testing can be used in combination with clinical historical information to select which allergens should be selected for allergen immunotherapy. Serum tests for allergen-specific IgE and intradermal tests are equally useful and both are still performed with allergen extracts in animals, in contrast to component-resolved tests such as single molecule CAP testing or ImmunoCAP ISAC microarray in human medicine [45].

Prick puncture testing is not performed routinely in veterinary medicine, as intradermal testing is an established and safe diagnostic tool with a extremely low risk of adverse effects [69].

Fleas

Fleas and Flea Allergy Dermatitis

The adult cat flea spends most of its time living on cats and dogs. Fleas lay eggs on the animals, but these eggs rapidly drop off the pets and are distributed in the parts of the environment where the pets spend most of their time.

What does flea allergy dermatitis glance love on dogs

The eggs hatch into larvae which evolve into pupae (cocoons) emerging in the future as adult fleas. For one adult flea found on your pet there are at least one hundred immature fleas in the animal’s environment.

Flea allergy is the most common cause of itching and scratching in the dog and cat. When the flea bites your pet, it injects a little quantity of saliva into the skin. Dogs and cats can develop an allergy to this saliva and will react to it with severe itching and scratching. This itching sensation may final for up to two weeks after the final flea bites.

In the dog, the most commonly observed signs of flea allergy are: biting and scratching around the rump, tailbase, and groin area; «hot spots;» and secondary skin infections.

Cats may show flea bite allergy more subtly. You may see areas of hair loss and scratching, but more often you will feel little scabs and bumps around their necks and below their backs (miliary dermatitis).

It may seem confusing to hear that your dog or cat has flea allergy dermatitis if you never see fleas. This is mainly due to the fact that your pet has a remarkable capacity to chase and subsequently eat the fleas! You may also discover evidence of fleas on your pet by using a fine comb and brushing out the «flea dirt» that they leave behind. This «dirt» looks love little black dots, and is the excrement of the flea.

When placed on wet paper, it dissolves in red streaks because it contains partially digested blood.

Unfortunately, there is no simple solution for flea allergy, nor is there a magical medication. The only long-term efficacious and safe therapy for flea allergy dermatitis is to hold your pet from being bitten by fleas. This may seem love an impossible task, but it is not. Remember, successful resolution of the flea-allergic animal’s distress requires that the fewest number of fleas bite your pet.

RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FLEA CONTROL
The control of fleas is an ongoing process, but once started, it is not hard to sustain.

The following recommendations will assist you in this control, but you should remember that they are simply guidelines. The flea control program you use must be tailored to your individual situation. Just as we are constantly updating our protocol, you will need to change yours as new products become available and the efficacy of those now in use are altered by time of year, location, and reformulation.

The products listed in this handout are some carried by the hospital pharmacy.

We do not endorse any specific brand-name product. Our intention is to recommend a specific athletic ingredient for use, and we use the products that we stock as examples.

DOGS
We recommend the use of an adulticide product for every dogs and cats in the households. The newer veterinary «spot-on» products offer both safety and convenience. These products own been shown to be extremely effective when used as instructed. They are not absorbed into your pet’s bloodstream (they stay in the skin), making them extremely safe.

Advantage(r) (imidacloprid), Frontline Plus(r) (fipronil and methoprene) and K9Advantix(tm) (imidacloprid and permethrin) are currently available at the Little Animal Clinic. Precise dosage is based on the dog’s weight. These products are applied by parting the hair between the shoulder blades and below the back, applying the little quantity of liquid onto the skin. Application frequency varies with the product and bathing needs. These products are most often applied every weeks. It is recommended that you apply the spot-on treatment days after bathing. Depending on the product, fleas contacting your pet will die within hours after exposure to the spot-on product.

Frontline Plus(r), Frontline(r) Spray (fipronil) and K9Advantix(tm) are also effective for the dog tick and can safely be used on puppies older than 8 weeks. K9Advantix(tm) can be used safely on puppies 7 weeks of age and older. K9Advantix(tm) is toxic for cats and should NOT be used in households with cats.

What does flea allergy dermatitis glance love on dogs

Advantage(r) can be safely used on puppies 7 weeks or older.

Revolution(r) (selamectin) is a «spot on» product that is absorbed into the body. Revolution(r) is effective against heartworms, scabies mites, and a variety of intestinal parasites as well as fleas.

What does flea allergy dermatitis glance love on dogs

Revolution(r), once absorbed into the body, works on fleas by secretion onto the skin by the sebaceous glands. Revolution(r) is safe to use on puppies and kittens over 6 weeks of age.

An oral flea adulticide, Capstar(r) (nitenpyram) is also available. Capstar(r) is a extremely safe, short acting oral tablet which can be given daily or every other day for routine flea control, or used additionally with other products. Capstar(r) is safe to use daily, or can be used as a «rescue» drug to kill fleas should they be seen on dogs and cats older than 4 weeks and at least 2 pounds of body weight. Capstar(r) begins working within seven minutes and kills fleas immediately after the first blood meal is taken.

Capstar(r) is an oral, systemic product and therefore is not affected by bathing or swimming. Most recently available is a monthly oral flea adulticide, Comfortis(tm) (spinosad). Comfortis(tm) is a chewable flavored tablet approved for use in dogs only, 14 weeks of age and older. Comfortis ™ achieves full effectiveness within 4 hours and kills fleas immediately after the first blood meal is taken.

Two other veterinary products recently available for dogs are Vectra 3D(tm) (dinotefuran, permethrin and pyriproxyfen) and Promeris(tm) for dogs (metaflumizone and amitraz).

The hospital is not yet carrying these products, but they may be available through your veterinarian or at the hospital in the future. Vectra 3D(tm) is a spot-on product safe for use on dogs and puppies 7 weeks of age and older. Vectra 3D(tm) is toxic to cats and should not be used in households with cats.

What does flea allergy dermatitis glance love on dogs

This product kills and repels fleas, ticks and mosquitoes, and contains pyriproxyfen, an insect growth regulator which prevents development of flea eggs and larva. Vectra 3D(tm) is recommended for monthly application. Promeris(tm) for dogs is another topical spot on product safe for dogs and puppies only, 8 weeks of age and older. Promeris(tm) for dogs kills fleas and ticks and is effective for up to 6 weeks, though recommended for monthly application.

CATS
If you own cats, they must be involved in the flea control program even if they are not exhibiting any problems, or they will carry the fleas to your home, yard, and dogs.

Cats are much more sensitive to the chemicals in flea preparations, and numerous insecticides cannot be used on them. We recommend Revolution(r) (selamectin), Frontline Plus(r) (fipronil and methoprene) or Advantage(r) (imidacloprid) in the feline formulation. A newer product not currently available at the clinic is Promeris(tm) (metaflumizone) for cats. Promeris(tm) for cats is safe to use on cats and kittens 8 weeks of age and older. Though recommended for monthly application, this product shows activity against fleas for up to 6 weeks.

Every these products are applied in a similar fashion as in dogs. Beginning at the base of the head, part the hair and spread the little quantity of liquid below the top of the neck. Application also varies from two to four week intervals, depending on other treatments. Please follow the instructions outlined for your pet. Capstar(r) (nitenpyram) is also safe for use in cats as a «quick kill» in the event fleas are seen, or can be given every one to two days for routine flea control if an oral product is desirable.

CONTROL OF JUVENILE FLEAS
Several life stages happen before a flea becomes a biting adult.

Some of these juvenile stages are also targets for flea control. Decreasing the numbers of immature (juvenile) fleas is an excellent way to assist prevent adult fleas and their bites. Recent research has led to the release of several products that interrupt the life cycle of the flea. Often these products are used in combination to quickly and effectively decrease the flea burden of your pet. Synthetic juvenile flea growth hormone imitators are found in numerous flea products.

Methoprene (Precor(r)) is contained in Frontline Plus(r) as well as numerous of the indoor area treatments.

What does flea allergy dermatitis glance love on dogs

Knockout(r) (pyriproxifen) is formulated in a collar for cats and dogs that contains a similar flea growth regulator and is effective for 13 months. Unlike other flea collars, these destroy only the young stages and are fairly effective and convenient. Knockout flea spray (for dogs only) contains a synthetic pyrethroid plus pyriproxifen and can be used safely on dogs every weeks. Vectra 3D(tm) also contains pyriproxyfen as one of its athletic ingredients.

What does flea allergy dermatitis glance love on dogs

Every of these synthetic hormones are extremely safe to use on animals and around humans. They prevent the adult female flea from laying viable eggs and prevent immature fleas from developing into adults.

Program(r) (Lufenuron) is an oral chewable tablet available for both dogs and cats that is given monthly with food. As the adult female flea feeds on the dog or cat, the female flea lays eggs that cannot hatch and larvae that will not survive. This product is extremely safe, but flea-allergic animals also need protection from the biting adults.

Program(r) is best used in combination with a topical flea adulticide or Capstar(r). Another formulation available is lufenuron in combination with milbemycin, a monthly heartworm preventative. This product, called Sentinel(r) is also given monthly with a full meal.

Most other forms of flea control on your pet own been scientifically shown to be ineffective. Flea shampoos will only kill the adult fleas but own virtually no residual effect, and will not prevent reinfestation once they are rinsed off.

Insecticidal flea collars alone are ineffective because they are not capable to sustain high enough concentrations of insecticide over the animal’s entire body. Electronic flea collars, brewer’s yeast, garlic, vitamin B tablets, and extracts of eucalyptus or pennyroyal, are not flea repellent, and provide no protection for your pet. Lastly, flea combs, although helpful, are similar in effect to the use of flea shampoos alone: they do not prevent reinfestation.

SIGNS OF TOXICITY
Every flea control products are potentially toxic or may produce unexpected side effects. Toxicity may result from accidental overdose or unexpected sensitivity. Known side effects, although rare, are vomiting, diarrhea, drooling, sluggishness, weakness, or abnormal behavior.

If you suspect that your animal is reacting adversely to a flea control product, stop using the product and consult your veterinarian immediately. If the reaction occurs immediately after application, the product should be rinsed off thoroughly and the animal brought to the veterinarian for evaluation. Adverse reactions may happen from minutes to days following application. Insecticides can be toxic to people; every products should be handled carefully, avoiding direct contact as much as possible. Hold every products out of the reach of children.

Cats are particularly sensitive to numerous pesticides. Only use products labeled to be safely used on cats. If you own any questions about a product’s safety, please consult your veterinarian.

FLEA CONTROL IN YOUR ENVIRONMENT
Home and yard treatments need to be concentrated on «source points», areas where pets spend most of their time. This typically would include the bedding and resting areas, the feeding location, etc. You can lessen the flea burden in your home by thorough vacuuming of every source points followed by disposal of the vacuum bag and by washing every animal bedding weekly in boiling water and drying at high heat for twenty minutes.

Steam cleaning of rugs and carpeting +/- upholstery is also helpful.

In the yard, focus on areas where your pet(s) spend most of their time. Typically, fleas survive and reproduce in shaded, moist areas with plant or organic debris (under decks, bushes, etc). Fleas do not survive or reproduce well in sunny, open areas of lawn or patio. Elimination of yard debris will be helpful in reducing flea numbers.

You may select to use a professional exterminator service for the treatment of fleas in your home and garden.

Fleas are probably the most common ectoparasite (external parasite) of dogs and cats worldwide. In addition to just being a nuisance, fleas are responsible for flea allergy dermatitis (FAD) in dogs and cats, which is estimated to account for over 50 percent of every the dermatological cases reported to veterinarians.

Ticks are also ectoparasites.

Ticks are significant vectors of a number of diseases, including Lyme disease. Ticks are second only to mosquitoes as vectors of human disease, both infectious and toxic. Control and prevention of ticks is extremely significant in reducing the risk of disease associated with ticks.


The Companion Animal Parasite Council

The Companion Animal Parasite Council (CAPC) is an independent council of veterinarians and other heath care professionals established to create guidelines for the optimal control of internal and external parasites that threaten the health of pets and people.

It brings together wide expertise in pararsitology, internal medicine, human health care, public health, veterinary law, private practice and association leadership.

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Tips to protect your family and your pet.

  • Wash your hands well after contact with an animal.
  • Do not permit children to put dirt in their mouths.
  • Pick up dog and cat waste from your yard daily, especially in areas where both children and animals play.
  • Cover home sandboxes to protect them from fecal contamination.
  • Have your pet tested regularly (at least once a year) for parasites by a veterinarian and ister year-round preventive medications to control internal parasites that present a risk to your pet and your family.


What is a vector-borne disease?

Vector-borne diseases are those transmitted by fleas or ticks (among other parasites) that infest dogs and cats.

They can affect pets and people. Ticks can transmit a large number of “vectorborne” diseases in North America including ehrlichiosis, Lyme disease, relapsing fever, Rocky Mountain spotted fever and tularemia.


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