What does a baby skin allergy look like

There is no treatment that will permanently rid the person of symptoms of aquagenic urticaria, but healthcare providers can prescribe a medication to calm the hives/ breakout. Most treatments are used to lessen the effects of the disease to promote more comfort when the body must come in contact with water.[6]


Signs and symptoms

The symptoms of aquagenic urticaria (inaccurately called water allergy) are similar to every the other types of physical hives. This may include wheals or little raised hives, intense itching, skin flushing in the areas that are prone to water contact.

The symptoms may appear within minutes after the body comes in contact with the water.[3] Aquagenic urticaria is a rare condition in which itchy urticaria (hives) develop rapidly after the skin comes in contact with water, regardless of its temperature. The hives associated with aquagenic urticaria are typically little (approximately 1–3mm), red- or skin-colored welts (called wheals) with clearly defined edges. It most commonly develops on the neck, upper trunk and arms, although it can happen anywhere on the body. Once the water source is removed, the rash generally fades within 30 to 60 minutes.[4]


External links

  • ^Panconesi, E; Lotti, T ().

    «Aquagenic urticaria». Clinics in Dermatology. 5 (3): 49– doi/sx(87) PMID

  • ^Martínez-Escribano, J. A.; Quecedo, E; de la Cuadra, J; Frías, J; Sánchez-Pedreño, P; Aliaga, A (). «Treatment of aquagenic urticaria with PUVA and astemizole». Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology. 36 (1): –9. doi/s(97)x. PMID
  • ^Treudler, R; Tebbe, B; Steinhoff, M; Orfanos, C. E. (). «Familial aquagenic urticaria associated with familial lactose intolerance». Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology. 47 (4): –3. doi/mjd PMID
  • ^Park, H; Kim, H. S.; Yoo, D.

    S.; Kim, J. W.; Kim, C. W.; Kim, S. S.; Hwang, J. I.; Lee, J. Y.; Choi, Y. J. (). «Aquagenic urticaria: A report of two cases». Annals of Dermatology. 23 (Suppl 3): S–4. doi/adS3.S PMC PMID

  • ^Dice JP & Gonzalez-Reyes E. Physical urticarias. UpToDate. March,
  • ^ abShelley, W. B.; Rawnsley, H. M. (). «Aquagenic Urticaria.

    Contact Sensitivity Reaction to Water». JAMA. : –8. doi/jama PMID

  • ^Beaven, M. A. (). «Our perception of the mast cell from Paul Ehrlich to now». European Journal of Immunology. 39 (1): 11– doi/eji PMC PMID
  • ^Rothbaum, Robert; McGee, Jean S. (). «Aquagenic urticaria: diagnostic and management challenges». Journal of Asthma and Allergy. 9: – doi/JAA.S ISSN PMC PMID
  • ^Dice, J. P. (). «Physical urticaria»(PDF). Immunology and Allergy Clinics of North America.

    24 (2): –46, vi. doi/ PMID

  • ^Lee HG, Lee AY, Lee YS (). «A case of aquagenic urticaria». Korean J Dermatol. 28: –
  • ^Park, H; Kim, H. S.; Yoo, D. S.; Kim, J. W.; Kim, C. W.; Kim, S. S.; Hwang, J. I.; Lee, J. Y.; Choi, Y. J. (). «Aquagenic urticaria: A report of two cases». Annals of Dermatology. 23 (Suppl 3): S–4. doi/adS3.S PMC PMID
  • ^Baptist, A. P.; Baldwin, J. L. (). «Aquagenic urticaria with extracutaneous manifestations». Allergy and Asthma Proceedings. 26 (3): – PMID
  • ^Harwood, C. A.; Kobza-Black, A (). «Aquagenic urticaria masquerading as occupational penicillin allergy».

    The British Journal of Dermatology. (5): –8. doi/jtbx. PMID

  • ^Hide, M; Yamamura, Y; Sanada, S; Yamamoto, S (). «Aquagenic urticaria: A case report». Acta Dermato-venereologica. 80 (2): –9. PMID
  • ^ ab«Physical urticarias». UpToDate, Inc. March 31, Retrieved
  • ^ ab«Aquagenic Urticaria». Retrieved
  • ^ abcdefghijklmn«Aquagenic urticaria».

    Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center. 20 June Retrieved

  • ^Yavuz, S. T.; Sahiner, U. M.; Tuncer, A; Sackesen, C (). «Aquagenic urticaria in 2 adolescents». Journal of Investigational Allergology & Clinical Immunology. 20 (7): –5. PMID
  • ^Sibbald, R. G.; Black, A. K.; Eady, R. A.; James, M; Greaves, M. W. (). «Aquagenic urticaria: Evidence of cholinergic and histaminergic basis». The British Journal of Dermatology. (3): – doi/jtbx. PMID
  • ^Frances, A.

    M.; Fiorenza, G; Frances, R. J. (). «Aquagenic urticaria: Report of a case». Allergy and Asthma Proceedings. 25 (3): –7. PMID

  • ^Pitarch, G; Torrijos, A; Martínez-Menchón, T; Sánchez-Carazo, J. L.; Fortea, J. M. (). «Familial aquagenic urticaria and bernard-soulier syndrome». Dermatology. (1): 96–7. doi/ PMID
  • ^Zuberbier, T; Asero, R; Bindslev-Jensen, C; Walter Canonica, G; Church, M.

    K.; Giménez-Arnau, A; Grattan, C. E.; Kapp, A; Merk, H. F.; Rogala, B; Saini, S; Sánchez-Borges, M; Schmid-Grendelmeier, P; Schünemann, H; Staubach, P; Vena, G. A.; Wedi, B; Maurer, M; Dermatology Section of the European Academy of Allergology Clinical Immunology.; Global Allergy Asthma European Network. (). «EAACI/GA(2)LEN/EDF/WAO guideline: Definition, classification and diagnosis of urticaria». Allergy. 64 (10): – doi/jx. PMID

  • ^Wong, E; Eftekhari, N; Greaves, M. W.; Ward, A. M. (). «Beneficial effects of danazol on symptoms and laboratory changes in cholinergic urticaria». The British Journal of Dermatology. (4): –6. doi/jtbx. PMID

Symptoms of an allergic reaction usually develop within a few minutes of being exposed to something you’re allergic to, although occasionally they can develop gradually over a few hours.

Although allergic reactions can be a nuisance and hamper your normal activities, most are mild.

Very occasionally, a severe reaction called anaphylaxis can occur.

Symptoms of an allergic reaction usually develop within a few minutes of being exposed to something you’re allergic to, although occasionally they can develop gradually over a few hours.

Although allergic reactions can be a nuisance and hamper your normal activities, most are mild.

Very occasionally, a severe reaction called anaphylaxis can occur.


Diagnosis

Diagnosis of aquagenic urticaria will start with an evaluation of the patient’s clinical history looking for any signs of what might be causing this severe reaction.

The patient will then be put to a water treatment test where water will be applied to the upper body for 30 minutes. Water may be placed directly on the skin or a soaked paper towel may be applied. In numerous cases distilled water, tap water and saline will be used to check for a difference in reaction. After this is removed the skin will be checked for a reaction for the next 10–15 minutes. Because aquagenic urticaria frequently accompanies other types of physical urticaria, the doctor may act out tests to check for these other conditions.

An ice cube may be placed on the forearm for a few minutes to check for freezing urticaria, exposure to a boiling bath will be used to check for Cholinergic urticaria and the lesions will be inspected to determine the root cause of their appearance.[6]

Evaluations for aquagenic urticaria consist of a clinical history and water challenge test.[7] The standard test for aquagenic urticaria is application of a 35°C water compress to the upper body for 30 minutes. Water of any temperature can provoke aquagenic urticaria; however, keeping the compress at a similar temperature to that of the human body (37°C) avoids confusion with cold-induced or local heat urticaria.

In addition, a forearm or hand can be immersed in water of varying temperatures. A diagnosis of aquagenic urticaria requires exclusion of other types of physical urticaria, so an exercise test and ice cube test should be performed to law out other types of physical urticaria. Aquagenic urticaria should be distinguished from aquagenic pruritus, in which brief contact with water evokes intense itching without wheals or erythema.[8] The pathogenesis of aquagenic urticaria is not fully known; however, several mechanisms own been proposed.[9] Interaction with water with a component in or on the stratum corneum or sebum, generating a toxic compound, has been suggested.

Absorption of this substance would exert an effect of perifollicular mast cell degranulation with release of histamine.[10]

Aquagenic urticaria, once known as a rare physical urticaria, is reclassified as separate subtype of urticaria.[11] It was first reported by Walter B Shelley et al. in [12] Itchy hives on contact with water mostly presenting for the first time during puberty in females. Males are less often affected.[13][14][15] Even if majority cases are sporadic in nature, familial cases are also recorded.[16][17][10] Water in every forms such as tap or sea water, swimming pool water, sweat, tears and saliva can induce the lesions.[18][19][20]


Prevention

There is a lack of desensitization for water and aqua intile injection as allergen even on repeated exposure.[21] Avoidance of allergen as a general principle in any allergic disorder necessitates the evasion of water exposure.

Topical application of antihistamines love 1% diphenhydramine before water exposure is reported to reduce the hives.[22] Oil in water emulsion creams, or petrolatum as barrier agents for water can be used prior to a shower or bath with excellent control of symptoms.[23] Therapeutic effectiveness of various classes of drugs differ from case to case.


Cause

The exact underlying cause of aquagenic urticaria is poorly understood.[5] As of [update], the main scientific ideas about the cause are that the person is reacting to tiny amounts of an unknown substance dissolved in the water, or that the water interacts with or combines with an unknown substance present in or on the skin, and that the person’s immune system is reacting to this compound.[1] Despite the common name water allergy, this condition cannot be a true allergy to water, especially given that the body is largely composed of water.


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