What are the allergies symptoms
American Academy of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology
This academy’s website provides valuable information to assist readers determine the difference between colds, allergies, and sinusitis. A primer guide on sinusitis also provides more specific information about the chronic version of the illness. Additional resources include a «virtual allergist» that helps you to review your symptoms, as well as a database on pollen counts.
American College of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology (ACAAI)
In addition to providing a comprehensive guide on sinus infections, the ACAAI website also contains a wealth of information on allergies, asthma, and immunology.
The site’s useful tools include a symptom checker, a way to search for an allergist in your area, and a function that allows you to ask an allergist questions about your symptoms.
Asthma and Allergy Foundation of America (AAFA)
For allergy sufferers, the AAFA website contains an easy-to-understand primer on sinusitis. It also provides comprehensive information on various types of allergies, including those with risk factors for sinusitis.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)
The CDC website provides basic information on sinus infections and other respiratory illnesses, such as common colds, bronchitis, ear infections, flu, and sore throat.
It offers guidance on how to get symptom relief for those illnesses, as well as preventative tips on practicing good hand hygiene, and a recommended immunization schedule.
U.S. National Library of Medicine
The U.S. National Library of Medicine is the world’s largest biomedical library. As part of the National Institutes of Health, their website provides the basics on sinus infection. It also contains a number of links to join you with more information on treatments, diagnostic procedures, and related issues.
Main allergy symptoms
Common symptoms of an allergic reaction include:
- a raised, itchy, red rash (hives)
- swollen lips, tongue, eyes or face
- itchy, red, watering eyes (conjunctivitis)
- tummy pain, feeling ill, vomiting or diarrhoea
- sneezing and an itchy, runny or blocked nose (allergic rhinitis)
- wheezing, chest tightness, shortness of breath and a cough
- dry, red and cracked skin
The symptoms vary depending on what you’re allergic to and how you come into contact with it.
For example, you may have a runny nose if exposed to pollen, develop a rash if you own a skin allergy, or feel sick if you eat something you’re allergic to.
See your GP if you or your kid might own had an allergic reaction to something. They can assist determine whether the symptoms are caused by an allergy or another condition.
Read more about diagnosing allergies.
Nearly one in 50 Americans are at risk for anaphylaxis
Some children are allergic to certain foods, medicines, insects and latex. When they come into contact with these things they develop symptoms, such as hives and shortness of breath. This is known as an allergic reaction.
Things that cause an allergic reaction are called allergens. Take every allergic symptoms seriously because both mild and severe symptoms can lead to a serious allergic reaction called anaphylaxis (anna-fih-LACK-sis).
Be Aware of Symptoms of Anaphylaxis
The symptoms of anaphylaxis may happen shortly after having contact with an allergen and can get worse quickly.
You can’t predict how your kid will react to a certain allergen from one time to the next. Both the types of symptoms and how serious they are can change. So, it’s significant for you to be prepared for every allergic reactions, especially anaphylaxis. Anaphylaxis must be treated correct away to provide the best chance for improvement and prevent serious, potentially life-threatening complications.
Symptoms of anaphylaxis generally involve more than one part of the body such as the skin, mouth, eyes, lungs, heart, gut, and brain.
Some symptoms include:
- Shortness of breath, trouble breathing, wheezing (whistling sound during breathing)
- Dizziness and/or fainting
- Skin rashes and itching and hives
- Stomach pain, vomiting or diarrhea
- Swelling of the lips, tongue or throat
- Feeling love something terrible is about to happen
Your child’s doctor will give you a finish list of symptoms.
- Follow the steps in your child’s emergency care plan to give your kid epinephrine correct away.
This can save your child’s life.
- After giving epinephrine, always call 911 or a local ambulance service. Tell them that your kid is having a serious allergic reaction and may need more epinephrine.
- Sometimes, a reaction is followed by a second, more severe, reaction known as a biphasic reaction. This second reaction can happen within 4 to 8 hours of the first reaction or even later. That’s why people should be watched in the emergency room for several hours after anaphylaxis.
- Make a follow up appointment or an appointment with an allergy specialist to further diagnose and treat the allergy.
- Your kid needs to be taken to a hospital by ambulance. Medical staff will watch your kid closely for further reactions and treat him or her if needed.
Be Prepared for Anaphylaxis
Keep an Emergency Plan with You
You, your kid, and others who supervise or care for your kid need to recognize the signs and symptoms of anaphylaxis and how to treat it. Your child’s doctor will give you a written step-by-step plan on what to do in an emergency. The plan is called an allergy emergency care plan or anaphylaxis emergency action plan. To be prepared, you, your kid, and others who care for your kid need to own copies of this plan.
Epinephrine is the medicine used to treat anaphylaxis. The emergency action plan tells you when and how to give epinephrine.
You cannot rely on antihistamines to treat anaphylaxis.
Know How to Use Epinephrine
Learn how to give your kid epinephrine. Epinephrine is safe and comes in an easy-to-use device called an auto-injector. When you press it against your child’s outer thigh, it injects a single dose of medicine.
Your child’s health care team will show you how to use it. You, in turn, can teach people who spend time with your kid how to use it.
Always own two epinephrine auto-injectors near your kid. Do not store epinephrine in your car or other places where it will get too boiling or too freezing. Discard if the liquid is not clear, and replace it when it expires.
Common Causes of Anaphylaxis
Foods. The most common food allergies are eggs, milk, peanuts, tree nuts, soy, wheat, fish and shellfish.
The most common food allergies in infants and children are eggs, milk, peanuts, tree nuts, soy and wheat.
Insect stings from bees, wasps, yellow jackets and fire ants.
Latex found in things such as balloons, rubber bands, hospital gloves.
Medicines, especially penicillin, sulfa drugs, insulin and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as aspirin and ibuprofen.
Take Steps to Avoid Anaphylaxis
The best way to avoid anaphylaxis is for your kid to stay away from allergens.
Teach your kid about his or her allergy in an age-appropriate way. Teach your kid to tell an adult about a reaction, how to avoid allergens and how and when to use an epinephrine auto-injector.
Here are some first steps you can take for each type of allergy:
Food. Learn how to read food labels and avoid cross-contact. Read the label every time you purchase a product, even if you’ve used it before. Ingredients in any given product may change.
Insect allergies. Wear closed-toe shoes and insect repellent when outdoors. Avoid loose-fitting clothing that can trap an insect between the clothing and the skin.
Medicine allergies. Tell your doctor about medicines your kid is allergic to. Know both the generic and brand names of the medicines.
Latex allergies. Tell your doctors, dentists and other health care providers about your child’s latex allergy.
Enquire them to put a note in your child’s medical chart about your child’s allergy. Also remind them of the allergy before any medical procedure or test.
For every allergies: Educate family, friends, the school and others who will be with your kid about your child’s allergies. They can assist your kid avoid allergens and help if anaphylaxis occurs.
Reviewed by medical advisors June 2014.
Know How to Treat Anaphylaxis
- After giving epinephrine, always call 911 or a local ambulance service.
Tell them that your kid is having a serious allergic reaction and may need more epinephrine.
- Follow the steps in your child’s emergency care plan to give your kid epinephrine correct away. This can save your child’s life.
- Your kid needs to be taken to a hospital by ambulance. Medical staff will watch your kid closely for further reactions and treat him or her if needed.
Favorite Resources for Finding a Specialist
American Rhinologic Society
Through research, education, and advocacy, the American Rhinologic Society is devoted to serving patients with nose, sinus, and skull base disorders.
Their website’s thorough coverage of sinus-related issues includes rarer conditions, such as fungal sinusitis, which are often excluded from other informational sites. It also provides a valuable search tool to discover a doctor, as well as links to other medical societies and resources that are useful for patients.
Their website contains an exhaustive guide on sinusitis and an easy-to-use «Find a Doctor» search tool.
ENThealth provides useful information on how the ear, nose, and throat (ENT) are all connected, along with information about sinusitis and other related illnesses and symptoms, such as rhinitis, deviated septum, and postnasal drip.
As part of the American Academy of Otolaryngology — Head and Neck Surgery, this website is equipped with the ability to assist you discover an ENT specialist in your area.
Common symptoms of sinus infection include:
- Frontal headaches
- Nasal stuffiness or congestion
- Tenderness of the face (particularly under the eyes or at the bridge of the nose)
- Postnasal drip
- Pain in the teeth
- Discolored nasal discharge (greenish in color)
- Bad breath
Sinus infection (sinusitis) is often confused with rhinitis, a medical term used to describe the symptoms that accompany nasal inflammation and irritation.
Rhinitis only involves the nasal passages. It could be caused by a freezing or allergies.
Allergies can frolic an significant role in chronic (long-lasting) or seasonal rhinitis episodes. Nasal and sinus passages become swollen, congested, and inflamed in an attempt to flush out offending inhaled particles that trigger allergies. Pollen are seasonal allergens. Molds, dust mites and pet dander can cause symptoms year-round.
Asthma also has been linked to chronic sinus infections. Some people with a chronic nasal inflammation and irritation and/or asthma can develop a type of chronic sinusitis that is not caused by infection. Appropriate treatment of sinus infection often improves asthma symptoms.
Many allergens that trigger allergic rhinitis are airborne, so you can’t always avoid them.
If your symptoms can’t be well-controlled by simply avoiding triggers, your allergist may recommend medications that reduce nasal congestion, sneezing, and an itchy and runny nose. They are available in numerous forms — oral tablets, liquid medication, nasal sprays and eyedrops. Some medications may own side effects, so discuss these treatments with your allergist so they can assist you live the life you want.
Nonprescription saline nasal sprays will assist counteract symptoms such as dry nasal passages or thick nasal mucus. Unlike decongestant nasal sprays, a saline nasal spray can be used as often as it is needed.
Sometimes an allergist may recommend washing (douching) the nasal passage. There are numerous OTC delivery systems for saline rinses, including neti pots and saline rinse bottles.
Nasal cromolyn blocks the body’s release of allergy-causing substances. It does not work in every patients. The full dose is four times daily, and improvement of symptoms may take several weeks. Nasal cromolyn can assist prevent allergic nasal reactions if taken prior to an allergen exposure.
Nasal ipratropium bromide spray can assist reduce nasal drainage from allergic rhinitis or some forms of nonallergic rhinitis.
Leukatriene pathway inhibitors
Leukotriene pathway inhibitors (montelukast, zafirlukast and zileuton) block the action of leukotriene, a substance in the body that can cause symptoms of allergic rhinitis.
These drugs are also used to treat asthma.
Antihistamines are commonly used to treat allergic rhinitis. These medications counter the effects of histamine, the irritating chemical released within your body when an allergic reaction takes put. Although other chemicals are involved, histamine is primarily responsible for causing the symptoms. Antihistamines are found in eyedrops, nasal sprays and, most commonly, oral tablets and syrup.
Antihistamines assist to relieve nasal allergy symptoms such as:
- Eye itching, burning, tearing and redness
- Sneezing and an itchy, runny nose
- Itchy skin, hives and eczema
There are dozens of antihistamines; some are available over the counter, while others require a prescription.
Patients reply to them in a wide variety of ways.
Generally, the newer (second-generation) products work well and produce only minor side effects. Some people discover that an antihistamine becomes less effective as the allergy season worsens or as their allergies change over time. If you discover that an antihistamine is becoming less effective, tell your allergist, who may recommend a diverse type or strength of antihistamine.
If you own excessive nasal dryness or thick nasal mucus, consult an allergist before taking antihistamines. Contact your allergist for advice if an antihistamine causes drowsiness or other side effects.
Proper use: Short-acting antihistamines can be taken every four to six hours, while timed-release antihistamines are taken every 12 to 24 hours. The short-acting antihistamines are often most helpful if taken 30 minutes before an anticipated exposure to an allergen (such as at a picnic during ragweed season). Timed-release antihistamines are better suited to long-term use for those who need daily medications.
Proper use of these drugs is just as significant as their selection. The most effective way to use them is before symptoms develop. A dose taken early can eliminate the need for numerous later doses to reduce established symptoms. Numerous times a patient will tell that he or she “took one, and it didn’t work.” If the patient had taken the antihistamine regularly for three to four days to build up blood levels of the medication, it might own been effective.
Side effects: Older (first-generation) antihistamines may cause drowsiness or performance impairment, which can lead to accidents and personal injury.
Even when these medications are taken only at bedtime, they can still cause considerable impairment the following day, even in people who do not feel drowsy. For this reason, it is significant that you do not drive a car or work with dangerous machinery when you take a potentially sedating antihistamine. Some of the newer antihistamines do not cause drowsiness.
A frequent side effect is excessive dryness of the mouth, nose and eyes. Less common side effects include restlessness, nervousness, overexcitability, insomnia, dizziness, headaches, euphoria, fainting, visual disturbances, decreased appetite, nausea, vomiting, abdominal distress, constipation, diarrhea, increased or decreased urination, urinary retention, high or low blood pressure, nightmares (especially in children), sore throat, unusual bleeding or bruising, chest tightness or palpitations.
Men with prostate enlargement may encounter urinary problems while on antihistamines. Consult your allergist if these reactions occur.
- Keep these medications out of the reach of children.
- Some antihistamines appear to be safe to take during pregnancy, but there own not been enough studies to determine the absolute safety of antihistamines in pregnancy. Again, consult your allergist or your obstetrician if you must take antihistamines.
- Alcohol and tranquilizers increase the sedation side effects of antihistamines.
- While antihistamines own been taken safely by millions of people in the final 50 years, don’t take antihistamines before telling your allergist if you are allergic to, or intolerant of, any medicine; are pregnant or intend to become pregnant while using this medication; are breast-feeding; own glaucoma or an enlarged prostate; or are ill.
- Do not use more than one antihistamine at a time, unless prescribed.
- Follow your allergist’s instructions.
- Know how the medication affects you before working with heavy machinery, driving or doing other performance-intensive tasks; some products can slow your reaction time.
- Never take anyone else’s medication.
Immunotherapy may be recommended for people who don’t reply well to treatment with medications or who experience side effects from medications, who own allergen exposure that is unavoidable or who desire a more permanent solution to their allergies.
Immunotherapy can be extremely effective in controlling allergic symptoms, but it doesn’t assist the symptoms produced by nonallergic rhinitis.
Two types of immunotherapy are available: allergy shots and sublingual (under-the-tongue) tablets.
- Allergy shots: A treatment program, which can take three to five years, consists of injections of a diluted allergy extract, istered frequently in increasing doses until a maintenance dose is reached.
Then the injection schedule is changed so that the same dose is given with longer intervals between injections. Immunotherapy helps the body build resistance to the effects of the allergen, reduces the intensity of symptoms caused by allergen exposure and sometimes can actually make skin test reactions vanish.
As resistance develops over several months, symptoms should improve.
- Sublingual tablets: This type of immunotherapy was approved by the Food and Drug istration in 2014. Starting several months before allergy season begins, patients dissolve a tablet under the tongue daily. Treatment can continue for as endless as three years. Only a few allergens (certain grass and ragweed pollens and home dust mite) can be treated now with this method, but it is a promising therapy for the future.
Intranasal corticosteroids are the single most effective drug class for treating allergic rhinitis.
They can significantly reduce nasal congestion as well as sneezing, itching and a runny nose.
Ask your allergist about whether these medications are appropriate and safe for you. These sprays are designed to avoid the side effects that may happen from steroids that are taken by mouth or injection. Take care not to spray the medication against the middle portion of the nose (the nasal septum). The most common side effects are local irritation and nasal bleeding.
Some older preparations own been shown to own some effect on children’s growth; data about some newer steroids don’t indicate an effect on growth.
Decongestants assist relieve the stuffiness and pressure caused by swollen nasal tissue. They do not contain antihistamines, so they do not cause antihistaminic side effects. They do not relieve other symptoms of allergic rhinitis. Oral decongestants are available as prescription and nonprescription medications and are often found in combination with antihistamines or other medications.
It is not unusual for patients using decongestants to experience insomnia if they take the medication in the afternoon or evening. If this occurs, a dose reduction may be needed. At times, men with prostate enlargement may encounter urinary problems while on decongestants. Patients using medications to manage emotional or behavioral problems should discuss this with their allergist before using decongestants. Patients with high blood pressure or heart disease should check with their allergist before using. Pregnant patients should also check with their allergist before starting decongestants.
Nonprescription decongestant nasal sprays work within minutes and final for hours, but you should not use them for more than a few days at a time unless instructed by your allergist.
Prolonged use can cause rhinitis medicamentosa, or rebound swelling of the nasal tissue. Stopping the use of the decongestant nasal spray will cure that swelling, provided that there is no underlying disorder.
Oral decongestants are found in numerous over-the-counter (OTC) and prescription medications, and may be the treatment of choice for nasal congestion. They don’t cause rhinitis medicamentosa but need to be avoided by some patients with high blood pressure. If you own high blood pressure or heart problems, check with your allergist before using them.
Eye allergy preparations and eyedrops
Eye allergy preparations may be helpful when the eyes are affected by the same allergens that trigger rhinitis, causing redness, swelling, watery eyes and itching.
OTC eyedrops and oral medications are commonly used for short-term relief of some eye allergy symptoms. They may not relieve every symptoms, though, and prolonged use of some of these drops may actually cause your condition to worsen.
Prescription eyedrops and oral medications also are used to treat eye allergies. Prescription eyedrops provide both short- and long-term targeted relief of eye allergy symptoms, and can be used to manage them.
Check with your allergist or pharmacist if you are unsure about a specific drug or formula.
How is sinus infection diagnosed?
Diagnosis depends on symptoms and requires an examination of the throat, nose and sinuses.
Your allergist will glance for:
- Tenderness of the face
- Discolored (greenish) nasal discharge
- Swelling of the nasal tissues
- Bad Breath
If your sinus infection lasts longer than eight weeks, or if standard antibiotic treatment is not working, a sinus CT scan may assist your allergist diagnose the problem. Your allergist may examine your nose or sinus openings. The exam uses a endless, thin, flexible tube with a tiny camera and a light at one finish that is inserted through the nose.
It is not painful. Your allergist may give you a light anesthetic nasal spray to make you more comfortable.
Mucus cultures: If your sinus infection is chronic or has not improved after several rounds of antibiotics, a mucus culture may assist to determine what is causing the infection. Most mucus samples are taken from the nose. However, it is sometimes necessary to get mucus (or pus) directly from the sinuses.
Knowing what helpful of bacteria is causing the infection can lead to more effective antibiotic therapy.
A fungus could also cause your sinus infection. Confirming the presence of fungus is significant. Fungal sinus infection needs to be treated with antifungal agents, rather than antibiotics. In addition, some forms of fungal sinus infection – allergic fungal sinus infection, for example – do not reply to antifungal agents and often require the use of oral steroids.
Your allergist may consider ordering a sinus CT. This test can assist to define the extent of the infection. Your allergist may also send you to a specialist in allergy and immunology.
The specialist will check for underlying factors such as allergies, asthma, structural defects, or a weakness of the immune system.
Biopsies: A harm of more serious types of fungal sinus infection is that the fungus could penetrate into nearby bone. Only a bone biopsy can determine if this has happened. Biopsies involving sinus tissue are taken with flexible instruments inserted through the nose.
Biopsies of the sinus tissue are also used to test for immotile cilia syndrome, a rare disorder that can cause people to suffer from recurrent infections, including chronic sinus infection, bronchitis and pneumonia.
The first approach in managing seasonal or perennial forms of hay fever should be to avoid the allergens that trigger symptoms.
- Wear glasses or sunglasses when outdoors to minimize the quantity of pollen getting into your eyes.
- Wear a pollen mask (such as a NIOSH-rated 95 filter mask) when mowing the lawn, raking leaves or gardening, and take appropriate medication beforehand.
- Stay indoors as much as possible when pollen counts are at their peak, generally during the midmorning and early evening (this may vary according to plant pollen), and when wind is blowing pollens around.
- Don’t hang clothing outdoors to dry; pollen may cling to towels and sheets.
- Avoid using window fans that can draw pollens and molds into the house.
- Try not to rub your eyes; doing so will irritate them and could make your symptoms worse.
- Reduce exposure to dust mites, especially in the bedroom.
Use “mite-proof” covers for pillows, comforters and duvets, and mattresses and box springs. Wash your bedding frequently, using boiling water (at least 130 degrees Fahrenheit).
- To limit exposure to mold, hold the humidity in your home low (between 30 and 50 percent) and clean your bathrooms, kitchen and basement regularly. Use a dehumidifier, especially in the basement and in other damp, humid places, and empty and clean it often. If mold is visible, clean it with mild detergent and a 5 percent bleach solution as directed by an allergist.
- Keep windows closed, and use air conditioning in your car and home. Make certain to hold your air conditioning unit clean.
- Clean floors with a damp rag or mop, rather than dry-dusting or sweeping.
Exposure to pets
- If you are allergic to a household pet, hold the animal out of your home as much as possible.
If the pet must be inside, hold it out of the bedroom so you are not exposed to animal allergens while you sleep.
- Wash your hands immediately after petting any animals; wash your clothes after visiting friends with pets.
- Close the air ducts to your bedroom if you own forced-air or central heating or cooling. Replace carpeting with hardwood, tile or linoleum, every of which are easier to hold dander-free.
Treatments that are not recommended for allergic rhinitis
- Antibiotics: Effective for the treatment of bacterial infections, antibiotics do not affect the course of uncomplicated common colds (a viral infection) and are of no benefit for noninfectious rhinitis, including allergic rhinitis.
- Nasal surgery: Surgery is not a treatment for allergic rhinitis, but it may assist if patients own nasal polyps or chronic sinusitis that is not responsive to antibiotics or nasal steroid sprays.
Anaphylaxis: Severe Allergic Reactions
Severe allergic reaction (anaphylaxis)
In rare cases, an allergy can lead to a severe allergic reaction, called anaphylaxis or anaphylactic shock, which can be life threatening.
This affects the whole body and usually develops within minutes of exposure to something you’re allergic to.
Signs of anaphylaxis include any of the symptoms above, as well as:
Anaphylaxis is a medical emergency that requires immediate treatment.
Read more about anaphylaxis for information about what to do if it occurs.
Sheet final reviewed: 22 November 2018
Next review due: 22 November 2021
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Learn More About the Ultimate Winter Wellness Guide
Sinusitis can be a confusing thing to treat for anyone.
Because a sinus infection can be so easily confused with a common freezing or an allergy, figuring out the best way to alleviate your symptoms can be difficult.
Even more challenging, a sinus infection can evolve over time from a viral infection to a bacterial infection, or even from a short-term acute infection to a long-term chronic illness.
We own provided for you the best sources of information on sinus infections to assist you rapidly define your ailment and get the best and most efficient treatment possible.