What are the allergies like today
An individual cannot prevent the development of an allergy, but people who experience hay fever may discover some strategies useful for minimizing the impact.
Here are some tips:
- Regularly splash the eyes with cool water, to sooth them and clear them of pollen.
- Keep every surfaces, floors, and carpets as dust free as possible.
- Keep windows and doors shut when the pollen count is high.
- Be aware of the pollen count during susceptible months. Information is available through the internet and other media.
Pollen count tends to be higher on humid and windy non-rainy days and during the early evening.
- Shower and change your clothes after coming indoors, when pollen counts are high.
- Use "mite-proof" bedding.
- Smear Vaseline around the inside edges of your nostrils, as it helps stop pollen from getting through.
- Have your car fitted with a pollen filter, and drive with the windows closed at high-count times.
- Do not own flowers inside your home.
- Wear a cap to prevent pollen from collecting in the hair and then sprinkling below onto the eyes and face.
- Keep away from cigarette smoke, and quit, if you are a smoker.
- Choose a vacuum cleaner with a excellent filter.
- Use a dehumidifier to prevent mold.
- Avoid mowing the lawn during susceptible months, select low-pollen days for gardening, and hold away from grassy areas when pollen counts are high.
- Use wrap-around glasses to protect the eyes from pollen.
- Wash pets when they come indoors on a high pollen count day, or smooth their fur below with a damp cloth.
- Ask a physician for a plan, if you know your susceptible time is just around the corner.
What is hay fever?
Hay fever is an allergic reaction to airborne substances, such as pollen.
An allergy happens when the immune system mistakes a harmless substance for a harmful one, and the body releases chemicals to fight it.
This reaction is what causes the symptoms.
Allergens are often common substances that the immune system in most people either does not react to, or reacts only mildly.
However, some people require treatment, because their symptoms make it hard to finish their daily tasks.
Treatment may not eliminate symptoms, but it can reduce their impact.
Hay fever occurs when the immune system mistakes a normally harmless airborne substance for a threat.
The body produces an antibody called immunoglobulin E (IgE) to attack the threat, and it releases the chemical histamine.
Histamine causes the symptoms.
Seasonal hay fever triggers include pollen and spores that only cause symptoms at certain times of the year.
Examples of hay fever triggers include:
- tree pollen in the spring
- weed pollen, especially during fall
- grass pollen in tardy spring and summer
- fungi and mold spores, more common in warm weather
Other triggers include pet hair or dander, dust mites, mold, and cockroach dust.
Irritants that can lead to symptoms of hay fever are cigarette smoke, perfumes, and diesel exhaust fumes.
Some factors increase the risk of hay fever.
Genetic factors: If a shut family member has hay fever or another allergy, the risk is higher.
Other allergies or asthma: People with other allergies or asthma are more likely to own hay fever as well.
Gender and age: Before adolescence, hay fever is more common among boys, but after adolescence, females are more affected.
Birth date: People born during the high pollen season own a slightly higher risk of developing hay fever.
Second-hand smoke: Exposure to cigarette smoke during the early years of life increases the risk of hay fever.
Other factors include being the firstborn, coming from a smaller family or a higher-income family.
These final three risk factors may be linked to childhood infections.
An baby who has had fewer childhood infections may own a higher risk of autoimmune problems later in life.
Symptoms can start at diverse times of the year, depending on what substance the patient is allergic to.
A person who is allergic to a common pollen will own more severe symptoms when the pollen count is high.
Common symptoms include:
- itchy throat
- watery eyes
- a blocked, itchy, or runny nose
Severe symptoms may include:
- loss of smell and taste
- facial pain caused by blocked sinuses
- itchiness spreading from the throat to the nose and ears
Some people may experience tiredness or fatigue, irritability, and insomnia.
People with asthma may experience more wheezing and breathlessness at times when hay fever symptoms are common.
A range of over-the-counter (OTC) treatments can assist manage hay fever.
Sometimes, a combination of two or three is best.
A physician can advise about options.
Antihistamine sprays or tablets: Commonly available OTC, these stop the release of the chemical histamine. They generally effectively relieve symptoms of a runny nose, itching, and sneezing, but they will not unblock congested sinuses. Older antihistamines can cause drowsiness.
Eye drops: These reduce itching and swelling in the eyes. They are generally used alongside other medications. Eye drops often contain cromoglycate.
Nasal corticosteroids: These sprays treat the inflammation caused by hay fever.
They offer a safe and effective long-term treatment. It may take a week for benefits to show.
Examples include fluticasone (Flonase), fluticasone (Veramyst), mometasone (Nasonex) and beclomethasone (Beconase).
There may be an unpleasant smell or taste, or nose irritation.
Oral corticosteroids: Severe hay fever symptoms may reply well to prednisone tablets, prescribed by a doctor. These are for short-term use only. Long-term use is linked to cataracts, muscle weakness, and osteoporosis.
Immunotherapy: Immunotherapy can provide long-term relief by gradually desensitizing the immune system to the allergens that trigger the symptoms.
It is generally received in the form of allergy shots or sublingual drops for people whose symptoms are serious and own not cleared up following other treatments.
Immunotherapy may lead to lasting remission of allergy symptoms, and it may assist prevent the development of asthma and new allergies.
Injections are given by a doctor, but sublingual immunotherapy, or medication that is dissolved under the tongue, can be taken at home.
Alternative therapies that claim to treat hay fever include acupuncture, but study results own not confirmed significant improvements.
No herbal remedies are recommended.
During pregnancy, it is significant to speak to a doctor before taking any medication, to prevent potential adverse effects on fetal development.
To specify the correct treatment, a doctor will glance at the symptoms and enquire about personal and family medical history.
A blood or skin test can identify which substance the patient is allergic to.
In a skin test, the skin is pricked with a minute quantity of a known allergen.
A blood test will show the level of IgE antibodies.
This will be high if an allergy is present. The test takes about 20 minutes.
Zero IgE antibodies indicate no sensitivity, while 6 indicates extremely high sensitivity.
Another skin-prick test involves injecting an allergen under the skin and checking for a reaction around 20 minutes later.
There is currently no cure for hay fever.
However, symptoms can be managed during the times of the year that own a high pollen count.
For treatment to work in the first year, treatment should be commenced 3 months before the season in which pollen spreads.
Continued treatment can own the effect of reducing symptoms, improving immunity to the allergen, and enhancing the quality of life. Three years of treatment has been shown to lead to long-term desensitization against pollen.
However, if symptoms do not improve significantly after one year, treatment should be discontinued as it is unlikely to work.
Hay fever can become more serious, moving into the lungs and developing into allergic asthma.
People with a pollen allergy can also become more likely to develop other allergies, such as food intolerances.
Severe hay fever can also make the mucous membranes of the nose more sensitive to other irritants, such as cigarette smoke or dry air. This can lead to sinusitis.
Itchy eyes, a congested nose, sneezing, wheezing and hives: these are symptoms of an allergic reaction caused when plants release pollen into the air, generally in the spring or drop. Numerous people use hay fever as a colloquial term for these seasonal allergies and the inflammation of the nose and airways.
But hay fever is a misnomer, said Dr.
Jordan Josephson, an ear, nose and throat doctor and sinus specialist at Lenox Hill Hospital in New York City.
«It is not an allergy to hay,» Josephson, author of the book «Sinus Relief Now» (Perigee Trade, 2006), told Live Science. «Rather, it is an allergy to weeds that pollinate.»
Doctors and researchers prefer the phrase allergic rhinitis to describe the condition.
More than 50 million people experience some type of allergy each year, according to the Asthma and Allergy Foundation of America. In 2017, 8.1% of adults and 7.7% of children reported own allergic rhinitis symptoms, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Worldwide, between 10 and 30% of people are affected by allergic rhinitis, Josephson said.
In 2019, spring arrived early in some parts of the country and later in others, according to the National Phenology Network (NPN). Spring brings blooming plants and, for some, lots of sneezing, itchy, watery eyes and runny noses. According to NPN data, spring reared its head about two weeks early in areas of California, Nevada and numerous of the Southern and Southeastern states.
Much of California, for example, is preparing for a brutal allergy season due to the large quantity of winter rain. On the other hand, spring ranged from about one to two weeks tardy in the Northwest, the Midwest and the Mid-Atlantic U.S. [Watch a Massive ‘Pollen Cloud’ Explode from Late-Blooming Tree]