Beef allergy what to avoid

In children, the foods that most commonly cause an allergic reaction are:

  1. milk – if a kid has an allergy to cows’ milk, they’re probably allergic to every types of milk, as well as infants’ and follow-on formula
  2. eggs
  3. soya
  4. wheat
  5. peanuts

In adults, the foods that most commonly cause an allergic reaction are:

  1. tree nuts – such as walnuts, brazil nuts, almonds and pistachios
  2. peanuts
  3. fish
  4. shellfish – such as crab, lobster and prawns

However, any type of food can potentially cause an allergy.

Beef allergy what to avoid

Some people own allergic reactions to:

  1. mustard
  2. celery or celeriac – this can sometimes cause anaphylactic shock
  3. gluten – a type of protein found in cereals
  4. sesame seeds
  5. fruit and vegetables – these generally only cause symptoms affecting the mouth, lips and throat (oral allergy syndrome)
  6. pine nuts (a type of seed)
  7. meat – some people are allergic to just one type of meat, while others are allergic to a range of meats; a common symptom is skin irritation


Who’s at risk?

Exactly what causes the immune system to error harmless proteins as a threat is unclear but some things are thought to increase your risk of a food allergy.

Family history

If you own a parent, brother or sister with an allergic condition – such as asthma, eczema or a food allergy – you own a slightly higher risk of developing a food allergy.

However, you may not develop the same food allergy as your family members.

Other allergic conditions

Children who have atopic dermatitis (eczema) in early life are more likely to develop a food allergy.


Non-IgE-mediated food allergy

There’s another type of food allergy known as a non-IgE-mediated food allergy, caused by diverse cells in the immune system.

This is much harder to diagnose as there’s no test to accurately confirm non-IgE-mediated food allergy.

This type of reaction is largely confined to the skin and digestive system, causing symptoms such as heartburn, indigestion and eczema.

In babies, a non-IgE-mediated food allergy can also cause diarrhoea and reflux, where stomach acid leaks up into the throat.


Food additives

It’s rare for someone to have an allergic reaction to food additives.

However, certain additives may cause a flare-up of symptoms in people with pre-existing conditions.

Sulphites

Sulphur dioxide (E220) and other sulphites (from numbers E221 to E228) are used as preservatives in a wide range of foods, especially soft drinks, sausages, burgers, and dried fruits and vegetables.

Sulphur dioxide is produced naturally when wine and beer are made, and is sometimes added to wine. Anyone who has asthma or allergic rhinitis may react to inhaling sulphur dioxide.

Beef allergy what to avoid

A few people with asthma own had an attack after drinking acidic drinks containing sulphites, but this isn’t thought to be extremely common.

Food labelling rules require pre-packed food sold in the UK, and the relax of the European Union, to show clearly on the label if it contains sulphur dioxide or sulphites at levels above 10mg per kg or per litre.

Benzoates

Benzoic acid (E210) and other benzoates (E211 to E215, E218 and E219) are used as food preservatives to prevent yeasts and moulds growing, most commonly in soft drinks.

They happen naturally in fruit and honey.

Benzoates could make the symptoms of asthma and eczema worse in children who already own these conditions.

Sheet final reviewed: 15 April 2019
Next review due: 15 April 2022

To prevent a reaction, it is extremely significant to avoid every fish and fish products. Always read food labels and enquire questions about ingredients before eating a food that you own not prepared yourself.

Steer clear of seafood restaurants, where there is a high risk of food cross-contact. You should also avoid touching fish and going to fish markets.

Being in any area where fish are being cooked can put you at risk, as fish protein could be in the steam.

More than half of people who are allergic to one type of fish are also allergic to other fish.

Beef allergy what to avoid

Your allergist will generally recommend you avoid every fish. If you are allergic to a specific type of fish but desire to eat other fish, talk to your doctor about further allergy testing.

Fish is one of the eight major allergens that must be listed on packaged foods sold in the U.S., as required by federal law. Read more about food labels

There are more than 20,000 species of fish. Although this is not a finish list, allergic reactions own been commonly reported to:

  1. Halibut
  2. Cod
  3. Bass
  4. Flounder
  5. Herring
  6. Grouper
  7. Salmon
  8. Perch
  9. Pollock
  10. Anchovies
  11. Pike
  12. Haddock
  13. Sole
  14. Hake
  15. Tilapia
  16. Trout
  17. Mahi mahi
  18. Catfish
  19. Swordfish
  20. Scrod
  21. Snapper
  22. Tuna

Also avoid these fish products:

  1. Fish gelatin, made from the skin and bones of fish
  2. Fish oil
  3. Fish sticks (some people make the error of thinking these don’t contain genuine fish)

Some Unexpected Sources of Fish

  1. Caesar salad and Caesar dressing
  2. Barbecue sauce
  3. Bouillabaisse
  4. Caponata, a Sicilian eggplant relish
  5. Imitation or artificial fish or shellfish (e.g., surimi, also known as “sea legs” or “sea sticks”)
  6. Worcestershire sauce
  7. Certain cuisines (especially African, Chinese, Indonesian, Thai and Vietnamese)—even if you order a fish-free dish, there is high risk of cross-contact

Allergens are not always present in these food and products, but fish can appear in surprising places.

Again, read food labels and enquire questions if you’re ever unsure about an item’s ingredients.

Alpha-Gal may sound empowering, but the nickname, short for galactose-alpha-1, 3-galactose, is a sugar molecule that might just cause you to become allergic to meat.

The sugar molecule is spread from the Lone Star tick bite, named for the Texas-shaped marking on its back. Once bitten by a Lone Star tick, the body’s immune system is rewired.

"You’re walking through the woods, and that tick has had a meal of cow blood or mammal blood," explained Cosby Rock, an allergy and immunology fellow at Vanderbilt University.

Beef allergy what to avoid

"The tick, carrying Alpha-Gal, bites you and activates your allergy immune system."

From this, your body creates Alpha-Gal antibodies and, from that point on, the body is wired to fight Alpha-Gal sugar molecules. The majority of people who develop Alpha-Gal allergy syndrome realize their illness after eating meat, which is rife with Alpha-Gal.

Beef allergy what to avoid

The sugar is also present in some medications that use gelatins as stabilizers.

"There’s a time delay in the reaction," said Rock, which accounts for why some people don’t always immediately realize they’re own a reaction. "It [the Alpha-Gal] has to first travel through your gastrointestinal tract to be released. Hours later, patients wake up with hives, shortness of breath, vomiting, and diarrhea."

In rare cases, patients own to be admitted to the ICU.

"Some patients own had to be given life support because their blood pressure is so low that they’re in eminent harm of dying," said Rock, who has treated those suffering a reaction.

"Most patients don’t know what they have," he explained.

It often takes repeated allergic reactions for people to link their diet to their outbreak. Repeated exposure to tick bites can also worsen the severity of a reaction. Those who developed more Alpha-Gal antibodies from more exposure to ticks saw the most serious symptoms.

The allergy so far has treatments for side effects but no cure or vaccine.


The rise in food allergy cases

The number of people with food allergies has risen sharply over the past few decades and, although the reason is unclear, other allergic conditions such as atopic dermatitis own also increased.

One theory behind the rise is that a typical child’s diet has changed considerably over the final 30 to 40 years.

Another theory is that children are increasingly growing up in «germ-free» environments.

Beef allergy what to avoid

This means their immune systems may not get sufficient early exposure to the germs needed to develop properly. This is known as the hygiene hypothesis.


The immune system

The immune system protects the body by producing specialised proteins called antibodies.

Beef allergy what to avoid

Antibodies identify potential threats to your body, such as bacteria and viruses. They signal your immune system to release chemicals to kill the threat and prevent the spread of infection.

In the most common type of food allergy, an antibody known as immunoglobulin E (IgE) mistakenly targets a certain protein found in food as a threat. IgE can cause several chemicals to be released, the most significant being histamine.

Histamine

Histamine causes most of the typical symptoms that happen during an allergic reaction.

For example, histamine:

  1. causes little blood vessels to expand and the surrounding skin to become red and swell up
  2. affects nerves in the skin, causing itchiness
  3. increases the quantity of mucus produced in your nose lining, which causes itching and a burning sensation

In most food allergies, the release of histamine is limited to certain parts of the body, such as your mouth, throat or skin.

In anaphylaxis, the immune system goes into overdrive and releases large amounts of histamine and numerous other chemicals into your blood.

Beef allergy what to avoid

This causes the wide range of symptoms associated with anaphylaxis.


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